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海床浅表层硬质层的声学识别:以南海北部荔湾管线路由区为例

李家钢 黄必桂 刘乐军 李西双 周庆杰 高珊 周航 栾坤祥

李家钢,黄必桂,刘乐军,等. 海床浅表层硬质层的声学识别:以南海北部荔湾管线路由区为例[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(x):1–9
引用本文: 李家钢,黄必桂,刘乐军,等. 海床浅表层硬质层的声学识别:以南海北部荔湾管线路由区为例[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(x):1–9
Li Jiagang,Huang Bigui,Liu Lejun, et al. Identification of hard thin layers on the seabed or shallow sediments using geophysical data: A case study in the Liwan pipeline route, North South China Sea[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(x):1–9
Citation: Li Jiagang,Huang Bigui,Liu Lejun, et al. Identification of hard thin layers on the seabed or shallow sediments using geophysical data: A case study in the Liwan pipeline route, North South China Sea[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(x):1–9

海床浅表层硬质层的声学识别:以南海北部荔湾管线路由区为例

基金项目: 基于地球物理数据的工程地质研究(YXKY-2018-ZY-10); 国家自然科学基金项目-面上基金(41876061)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李家钢(1964-),男,高级工程师,主要从事海洋工程环境条件及设计标准方面的研究。E-mail: lijg2@cnooc.com.cn

    通讯作者:

    李西双(1976-),男,山东省嘉祥县人,副研究员,主要从事海洋浅层沉积结构、活动构造的声学探测与研究。E-mail: lxs@fio.org.cn

Identification of hard thin layers on the seabed or shallow sediments using geophysical data: A case study in the Liwan pipeline route, North South China Sea

  • 摘要: 由沉溺珊瑚礁、各类胶结砂以及胶结的珊瑚石或贝壳碎屑等组成的硬质薄层通常呈零散状分布,地质取样难以准确确定他们是如何分布的,这给海底管线施工带来极大的困难和风险。本文以南海北部为例,基于多种物探资料并结合正演模拟,分析、总结了海底以及海底之下硬质薄层的声学特征,在研究区综合识别出23个硬质层分布区。研究认为,硬质层与松散沉积物物理性质的差异可用于声学探测数据识别并且定他们的位置。在浅地层剖面上,硬质层表现为强反射薄层,并对其对下方地层的地震反射信号有一定的屏蔽作用,这一现象有助于确定硬质层是否存在以及其埋深和位置。侧扫声呐影像和后向散射强度图上,硬质层通常表现为具有不规则形状的明暗变化阴影,阴影的边界指示了硬质层的分布范围。当硬质层出露于海底时,侧扫影像、反向散射强度结合浅地层剖面可以有效地识别并确定硬质层的范围;而当硬质层位于海床浅部(埋深数米到十几米)时,浅地层剖面可能是识别硬质层的唯一且最有效的方法。
  • 图  1  南海北部陆架路由区取样中的珊瑚石照片

    Fig.  1  Photo of coral rocks in geological samples in the route area of the northern South China Sea

    图  2  研究中收集的工程物探资料分布

    a中灰色线表示侧扫和多波束数据覆盖的条带状区域,黑色点表示有浅地层剖面数据的区域,其中一个区域进行了放大如b

    Fig.  2  Track of geophysical data collected in the study area

    Grey lines represent the narrow zone covered by side-scan sonar and multibeam data and black dots represent the areas with sub-bottom profiles in a. An area is enlarged as in b

    图  3  模型I(a)及正演结果(b)

    模型I中不同介质(硬质薄层、海水,地层1和地层2)的密度取值相同,仅考虑速度差异而引起的波阻抗变化,硬质薄层纵波波速取3 000 m/s,海水波纵波波速取1 500 m/s,地层1纵波波速取 2 000m/s,地层2纵波波速取2 500 m/s

    Fig.  3  Model I (a) and seismic forward result (b)

    In model I, the density of medias (hard thin layer, seawater, formation 1 and formation 2) are assumed to be same; therefore, impedances of the medias are determined by their sound velocities. Here, the sound velocity is taken as 1 500 m/s for seawater, 2 000 m/s for formation 1, 2 500 m/s for formation 2 and 3 000 m/s for the hard thin layer

    图  4  模型II(a)及正演结果(b)

    模型II中不同介质的密度和各层的声速取值与模型I相同

    Fig.  4  Model II (a) and seismic forward result (b)

    The densities and sound velocities of different medias in Model II were taken as that in Model I

    图  5  路由区典型声学反射相(a-d)以及陆架外缘的埋藏硬质层反射特征(e)

    a. 展示了振幅较强的平行反射;b. 展示了振幅较弱的平行反射及管线引起的绕射;c. 展示了海底下方的无反射;d. 强反射海底下反射突然变弱现象

    Fig.  5  Typical acoustic reflection facies (a-d) in the study area and the reflection configuration of the buried hard layer at the outer edge of the shelf (e)

    a. Shows parallel reflections with high amplitude; b. displays parallel reflections with low amplitude and diffractions caused by the pipeline; c. shows no reflections beneath the seafloor; d. exhibits the phenomenon that amplitude of the reflections are abruptly lower beneath the seafloor which has high-amplitude reflections

    图  6  侧扫声呐影像揭示的典型地貌

    Fig.  6  Typical geomorphological features revealed by side-scan sonar images.

    图  7  后向散射强度灰度图揭示的典型地貌

    Fig.  7  Typical geomorphological features revealed by the grayscale map of backscatter intensity

    图  8  多种物探资料解释的硬质层

    a 为侧扫声呐影像,b 为后向散射强度,c 为浅地层剖面,a 和 b 中红色虚线圈定的区域为硬质层分布区;c 中带双箭头的白线为硬质层的分布区

    Fig.  8  Comprehensive interpretation of hard layers by geophysical data

    a is ide-scan sonar image, b is backscattering intensity and c is sub-bottom profile. See Figure 2 for the location. The area delineated by the red dotted lines is the distribution area of the hard layer in a and b. The white lines with double arrows indicate the distribution of the hardlayers in c

    图  9  研究区内识别的硬质层的分布(埋藏深度<5m)

    b的位置见右上角a;c是b的局部放大,黑色区域为识别的硬质层分布区

    Fig.  9  The location of hard layers (buried depth < 5 m) identified in the study area

    The location of b is shown in a and c is a partial enlargement of b. Black areas denote the distribution area of hard layer identified by geophysical data

    表  1  正演模型参数列表

    Tab.  1  Parameters in seismic forward models

    模型I模型II
    硬质层宽度400 m400 m
    硬质层厚度10 m10 m
    硬质层位置海底以下10 m出露海底5 m
    下载: 导出CSV
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