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海洋短排列多道反射地震数据观测系统重定义与沉放深度校正

张圣 高金耀 丁维凤 沈中延 刁云云

张圣,高金耀,丁维凤,等. 海洋短排列多道反射地震数据观测系统重定义与沉放深度校正[J]. 海洋学报,2020,42(3):140–148,doi:10.3969/j.issn.0253−4193.2020.03.013
引用本文: 张圣,高金耀,丁维凤,等. 海洋短排列多道反射地震数据观测系统重定义与沉放深度校正[J]. 海洋学报,2020,42(3):140–148,doi:10.3969/j.issn.0253−4193.2020.03.013
Zhang Sheng,Gao Jinyao,Ding Weifeng, et al. The application of geometric re-definition and sinking depth correction to the marine multi-channel short-array seismic reflection data[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2020, 42(3):140–148,doi:10.3969/j.issn.0253−4193.2020.03.013
Citation: Zhang Sheng,Gao Jinyao,Ding Weifeng, et al. The application of geometric re-definition and sinking depth correction to the marine multi-channel short-array seismic reflection data[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2020, 42(3):140–148,doi:10.3969/j.issn.0253−4193.2020.03.013

海洋短排列多道反射地震数据观测系统重定义与沉放深度校正


doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-4193.2020.03.013
详细信息
    作者简介: 张圣(1993—),男,山东省潍坊市人,主要从事海洋地球物理研究。E-mail:zsheng93@foxmail.com
    通讯作者: 高金耀,男,研究员,主要从事地球物理调查和海底构造及动力解释研究。E-mail:gaojy@sio.org.cn
  • 基金项目:  国家自然科学基金(41576069,41776189);2019年度南极周边海域海洋地球物理考察(CHINARE2019-01-03);全球变化与海气相互作用专项(GASI-GEOGE-05)。

The application of geometric re-definition and sinking depth correction to the marine multi-channel short-array seismic reflection data

More Information
  • 摘要: 短排列多道反射地震接收缆较短,无水鸟、磁罗经、尾标等定位定深设备,给常规数据处理带来诸如观测系统定义等棘手问题;另外,无定深设备会造成接收缆不同接收段的沉放深度不同,破坏反射数据理论双曲线时距曲线关系。针对短排列多道反射地震数据,本文充分利用现场导航数据,计算实际激发点轨迹,再通过反距离比线性插值算法计算检波点的轨迹坐标,获得整个排列的实际观测系统参数。对因沉放深度不一致造成的扭曲时距曲线反射波,文中利用理论双曲线先计算共中心点道集的理论反射波位置,再推算排列中各接收道不同沉放深度处的静校正量,通过静校正拟合运算,消除接收排列非一致深度引起的反射波同相轴扭曲现象。将上述处理方法应用于南极海域短排列多道反射地震数据,最终获得了高分辨率叠加剖面,为后续地质解释提供了保障。
  • 图  1  南极罗斯海地震测线位置

    Fig.  1  The location of seismic line in the Ross Sea

    图  2  海洋地震勘探拖缆姿态

    Fig.  2  Towing cable state of marine seismic exploration

    图  3  基于直线假设的常规观测系统

    Fig.  3  Conventional geometry based on linear hypothesis

    图  4  放炮时间间隔(a)、船速(b)、炮间距(c)随激发点点号变化曲线

    Fig.  4  Shot time interval (a), ship speed (b) and shot interval (c) curve of source point number

    图  5  检波点与激发点间空间位置关系

    Fig.  5  Spatial position relationship between the receiving points and the shot points

    图  6  基于直线假设定义的观测系统共反射点轨迹(a)与叠加次数(b)

    Fig.  6  Common reflection point trajectory (a) and the stacking fold (b) of the geometry defined by linear hypothesis

    图  7  基于导航数据定义的观测系统共反射点轨迹(a)与叠加次数(b)

    Fig.  7  Common reflection point trajectory (a) and the stacking fold (b) of the geometry based on navigation data

    图  8  海洋地震勘探基准面静校正

    S表示激发点,R表示检波点;S′,R′表示归算到基准面的激发点、检波点

    Fig.  8  Datum static correction of marine seismic exploration

    S is the source point, R is the receive point; S′ and R′ are the projection points of S and R onto the datum plane, respectively

    图  9  海洋地震勘探CMP地震波传播示意图

    Fig.  9  Schematic diagram of theoretical seismic wave propagation

    图  10  共中心点道集校正

    a图为校正前,b图为校正后,图中红色虚线为海底同相轴实际反射位置,蓝色为理论反射位置

    Fig.  10  Common mid-point gather correction

    a is before the correction, b is after the correction, the red dotted line represents the real reflection of the bottom, blue dotted line represents the theoretic reflection of the bottom

    图  11  共炮检距道集校正

    a图为校正前,b图为校正后

    Fig.  11  Common offset gather correction

    a is before the correction, b is after the correction

    图  12  叠加剖面排列整体深度校正

    a图为校正前,b图为校正后

    Fig.  12  Stack section alignment overall depth correction

    a is before the correction, b is after the correction

    图  13  叠加效果分析

    a图是基于直线定义观测系统,未做静校正处理前的叠加剖面,b图为经过实际激发点坐标观测系统定义与静校正后的叠加剖面

    Fig.  13  Analysis of stack section

    a is based on linear definiton observation system, a is the stacked section based on linear-defined geometric system and without static correction; b is the stacked section based on real-position-defined geometric system and with static correction

    表  1  海上地震勘探采集参数

    Tab.  1  Acquisition parameters for marine seismic exploration

    接收道数道间距缆长最小偏移距放炮方式
    24道6.25 m200 m36 m等时放炮
    设计放炮时间设计船速采样间隔震源类型震源能量
    5 s5 kn4 000 ms电火花震源13 kJ
      注:震源采用震源筏,沉放深度为0,拖缆沉放深度不一致。
    下载: 导出CSV
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