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海滩养护对海滩生态系统的多尺度影响述评

戚洪帅 曾舒婷 陈敏 蔡锋 梁丙臣 柳莎莎

戚洪帅,曾舒婷,陈敏,等. 海滩养护对海滩生态系统的多尺度影响述评[J]. 海洋学报,2024,46(1):12–26 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2024024
引用本文: 戚洪帅,曾舒婷,陈敏,等. 海滩养护对海滩生态系统的多尺度影响述评[J]. 海洋学报,2024,46(1):12–26 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2024024
Qi Hongshuai,Zeng Shuting,Chen Min, et al. Multi-scale impacts on beach ecosystem of beach nourishment: a review[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2024, 46(1):12–26 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2024024
Citation: Qi Hongshuai,Zeng Shuting,Chen Min, et al. Multi-scale impacts on beach ecosystem of beach nourishment: a review[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2024, 46(1):12–26 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2024024

海滩养护对海滩生态系统的多尺度影响述评

doi: 10.12284/hyxb2024024
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划重点专项项目(2022YFC3106104)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    戚洪帅(1980—),男,山东省日照市人,研究员,主要从事海洋生态修复和海滩养护技术等相关领域研究。E-mail:qihongshuai@tio.org.cn

  • 中图分类号: P753

Multi-scale impacts on beach ecosystem of beach nourishment: a review

  • 摘要: 海滩是常见且脆弱的滨海生态系统,具有极大的生态服务功能。受气候变化和人类活动的多重影响,海滩生态系统受损严重。海滩养护是利用人工补沙的方式对海滩地貌进行修复,是抵御海岸侵蚀和改善海滩环境的有效措施,以往的养护往往忽略了对海滩生态系统的影响,许多研究表明海滩养护对海滩生态系统会产生多方面、多尺度的复杂影响。本文在总结前人研究的基础上,梳理出海滩生态系统的构成、特点和功能,分析了海滩生态受损的基本特征,对海滩养护对海滩生态系统多尺度影响过程及影响机制进行了重点述评,并从降低负面生态影响角度给出了海滩养护技术优化方法,以支撑海滩生态系统适应性管理和可持续利用。
  • 图  1  海滩生态系统示意图

    Fig.  1  Sketch of beach ecosystem

    图  2  海滩生态系统常见受损情况

    a. 海岸侵蚀[32];b. 富营养化[57];c. 塑料污染[58];d. 采砂[53];e. 过度密集的海滩旅游[59]

    Fig.  2  Common damage to beach ecosystem

    a. Coastal erosion[32]; b. eutrophication[57]; c. plastic pollution[58]; d. sand mining[53]; e. over-intensive beach tourism[59]

    图  3  海滩生态系统受损及危害

    Fig.  3  Damage and harm to beach ecosystem

    图  4  海滩养护对海滩生态系统的时空影响

    Fig.  4  Temporal and spatial effects of beach nourishment on beach ecosystem

    图  5  海滩养护施工期生态影响

    Fig.  5  Construction period ecological impacts of beach nourishment

    图  6  沉积物粒径对海滩动物的影响 (根据文献[21]修改)

    Fig.  6  Effects of sediment particle size on beach fauna (modified from the reference [21])

    表  1  海滩生态系统服务功能(引自文献[31])

    Tab.  1  Beach ecosystem service functions (cited from the reference [31])

    功能分类 生态系统服务功能 沙丘 海滩 激浪带
    供给 (生物) 为了营养目的原位养殖的动物
    用于营养的野生植物(陆生和水生,包括真菌、藻类)
    直接使用或加工的野生植物纤维及其他原料(不包括遗传物质)
    用于营养的野生动物(陆生和水生)
    直接使用或加工的野生动物纤维及其他原料(不包括遗传物质)
    为维持或建立种群而收集的种子、孢子和其他植物材料
    为维持或建立种群而收集的动物材料
    供给 (非生物) 可饮用的地表水
    用于原料的地下水(非饮用目的)
    用于能源的海水
    可饮用的地下水
    用于营养目的的矿物质
    用作原料的矿物质
    用于营养目的的非矿物质或生态系统物质
    用于原料的非矿物质
    太阳能
    调节和维持(生物) 微生物、藻类、动植物的生物修复
    微生物、藻类、动植物的过滤/封存/储存/积累
    气味减少
    噪声衰减
    视觉遮蔽
    控制侵蚀速率
    质量运动的缓冲和衰减
    水文循环和水流调节(包括防洪和海岸保护)
    防风
    授粉(或在海洋环境中的配子传播)
    种子传播
    保持幼小种群和栖息地(包括基因库的保护)
    风化过程及其对泥土质量的影响
    泥土分解固定过程及其对泥土质量的影响
    通过生物过程调节海水的化学条件
    大气和海洋化学组分的调节
    调节温度和湿度,包括通风和蒸发作用
    调节和维持(非生物) 淡水和海洋生态系统的稀释
    通过其他化学或物理手段的调节(如过滤、封存、储存或积累)
    调节和维持(非生物) 通过非生物结构或过程对损害的调节
    质量流动
    液体流动
    气体流动
    通过无机的自然的化学或物理过程维持或调节
    其他:种子、幼体和配子通过物理过程传播
    文化 (生物) 通过主动或沉浸式互动,实现促进健康、恢复或享受的活动
    通过被动或观察互动,实现促进健康、恢复或享受的活动
    能够进行科学调查或创造传统生态知识的活动
    教育和培训
    文化或遗产上有共鸣的活动
    审美体验
    具有象征意义的元素
    具有神圣或宗教意义的元素
    用于娱乐或代表意义的元素
    存在价值
    选择价值或遗赠价值
    文化 (非生物) 能够进行主动或被动的物理和经验的相互作用
    能够进行思维的相互作用
    能够进行精神的、象征性的和其他的相互作用
    具有存在、选择或遗产价值的自然特征
      注:颜色条带越长,表示该服务功能供应越多。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  典型海滩养护案例

    Tab.  2  Typical beach nourishment cases

    养护工程 生态影响 恢复时间 恢复程度 参考文献
    澳大利亚新南威尔士州
    博塔尼湾海滩养护
    工程结束后采样无Exoediceros fossor生物;沉积物变化不大,生物恢复在1年内完成 1年 恢复在几周内开始,以时空相互作用为标准,恢复在1年内完成 文献[91]
    澳大利亚东部棕榈
    海滩养护
    工程完成5个月后,沉积物粒度恢复,但只限于海滩的中层和上层,下层沉积物会变粗。养护的影响大小在
    潮间带梯度上是不均匀的,对靠近沙丘的
    海滩上层影响要大得多
    5个月 海滩的上层没有恢复,仍然是生物稀少的。在中层和下层,恢复正在进行,物种丰富度恢复完全,但丰度恢复不完全 文献[92]
    雷洛萨海滩沙丘恢复 降低了海岸侵蚀的影响,海滩变得更平坦;人工沙丘的潮间带动物群落密度较潮上带的更高(F = 3.56,p = 0.063),在某种程度上沙丘恢复工程有利于潮间带生物。对比天然沙丘,欧洲沙蚤(Talitrus saltator)的丰度在重建沙丘处明显降低(F = 7.63,p = 0.007) 4年 沙丘重建的影响在第3年仍然可见,
    但在第4年完全消失
    文献[7]
    美国加利福尼亚州圣迭戈县8个海滩补沙工程 补沙后1个月,所有无脊椎动物的密度都有所降低,特别是多毛类,减少了2/3。沙蟹(Emerita analoga)在补沙后4个月大量繁殖,在补沙地方变得更常见 1年3个月 补沙15个月后,补沙对生物多样性指标
    的影响消失
    文献[61]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  海滩养护填砂沉积物性质

    Tab.  3  Beach nourishment sediment properties

    沉积物性质 选择 影响 参考文献
    粒径 接近或略粗于
    天然砂
    粒径与稳定性有关,填砂粒径细于天然砂可能会导致生物缺乏氧气而窒息死亡,干滩面积减小;
    粗于天然砂可能会阻碍鸟类和鱼类进食,并导致潮间带淤积
    文献[21, 97]
    泥球 尽量少 与海水浊度有关,浊度升高会阻碍视觉捕食者的捕食,对邻近珊瑚礁生态系统造成不利影响 文献[73]
    贝壳碎片 尽量少 影响海滩潮间带底栖动物的掘穴能力,并可能导致较低的生物密度 文献[66]
    化学毒性 无化学毒性的砂 细粒沉积物可能被重金属或合成有机化合物污染,可能对沉降的幼体或海滩无脊椎动物
    的后期生命阶段产生毒性
    文献[98]
    材料 硅酸盐等耐磨损材料 耐磨损材料能保证更长的耐久性,并防止近岸水浑浊 文献[96]
    颜色 与天然砂相同 既保护景观,也避免对地表或地下生活和筑巢的动物造成影响 文献[75]
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-08-22
  • 修回日期:  2023-11-08
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-12-19
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