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西南印度洋深海散射层昼夜垂直迁移特征研究

万树杰 陈新军

万树杰,陈新军. 西南印度洋深海散射层昼夜垂直迁移特征研究[J]. 海洋学报,2024,46(1):53–63 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2024016
引用本文: 万树杰,陈新军. 西南印度洋深海散射层昼夜垂直迁移特征研究[J]. 海洋学报,2024,46(1):53–63 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2024016
Wan Shujie,Chen Xinjun. Study on the diel vertical migration characteristics of the deep scattering layer in the southwestern Indian Ocean[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2024, 46(1):53–63 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2024016
Citation: Wan Shujie,Chen Xinjun. Study on the diel vertical migration characteristics of the deep scattering layer in the southwestern Indian Ocean[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2024, 46(1):53–63 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2024016

西南印度洋深海散射层昼夜垂直迁移特征研究

doi: 10.12284/hyxb2024016
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFD0901401)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    万树杰(1994—),男,河南省信阳市人,主要从事渔业声学研究。E-mail: shujie.wan@foxmail.com

    通讯作者:

    陈新军,男,教授,主要从事渔业资源渔场学、远洋鱿钓渔业、渔业资源经济学研究。E-mail: xjchen@shou.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P724;S931.1

Study on the diel vertical migration characteristics of the deep scattering layer in the southwestern Indian Ocean

  • 摘要: 本研究根据2011−2020年西南印度洋56个声学断面数据观察到的深海散射层201次昼夜垂直迁移现象,分析了其昼夜垂直迁移特征及时空差异。研究结果表明,该海域散射层具有分层现象,第一散射层位于200 m以浅水层,其海洋面积散射系数(NASC)峰值的平均水深为(58.66 ± 24.63)m,夏季和冬季之间存在显著性差异(p < 0.001);第二散射层位于400~700 m水层,其NASC峰值的平均水深为(589.02 ± 66.33)m,夏季和冬季之间无显著性差异(p = 0.51)。散射层向上迁移的开始时间平均为16:20,结束迁移的平均时间为18:31,迁移的平均速率为(5.28 ± 1.53)cm/s;向下迁移的开始时间平均为4:38,结束迁移的平均时间为6:52,迁移的平均速率为(5.56 ± 2.13)cm/s。随着纬度的增加,散射层向下迁移的开始时间变晚,迁移速率变慢;随着经度的增加,散射层迁移速率变慢,且不同经度海域之间存在显著性差异(p < 0.001)。分析认为,研究海域理化环境的季节性变化以及散射层中生物的不同生活史阶段是造成散射层垂直结构和昼夜垂直迁移特征时空差异的主要原因,其对解释金枪鱼的昼夜垂直迁移行为和指示金枪鱼渔场分布等具有重要意义。
  • 图  1  研究海域和声学调查断面分布

    Fig.  1  Research sea region and the distribution of acoustic transects

    图  2  声学数据再处理

    Fig.  2  Acoustic data reprocessing

    图  3  昼夜垂直迁移特征值提取示意图

    Fig.  3  Schematic diagram of extracting characteristic values of diel vertical migration

    图  4  昼夜垂直迁移特征值提取结果

    Fig.  4  Extraction results of characteristic values of diel vertical migration

    图  5  昼夜垂直迁移采样点分布

    Fig.  5  Distribution of sampling points for diel vertical migration

    图  6  2011−2020年间不同年份深海散射层lg(NASC)值的垂直分布

    Fig.  6  Vertical distribution of acoustic backscatter in the DSL water column [lg(NASC)] from 2011−2020

    图  7  不同深海散射层的NASC值分布

    Fig.  7  NASC values distribution of each DSL

    图  8  NASC峰值所处水深的分布与Mann-Whitney U 检验

    a. 第一峰值;b. 第二峰值。WMann-Whitney表示样本秩的和;p表示显著性水平;$\hat{r}^{{\mathrm{rank}}}_{\mathrm{biserial}} $表示样本之间的相关系数;CI95%表示95%的置信区间;nobs表示样本中的观测值总数;$\hat{\mu}_{\mathrm{median}} $表示样本的中位数

    Fig.  8  Depth distribution and Mann-Whitney U test results of the NASC peak

    a. The first peak; b. the second peak. WMann-Whitney represents the sum of samples’ order; p represents the level of significance; $\hat{r}^{{\mathrm{rank}}}_{\mathrm{biserial}} $ represents the correlation coefficient between samples; CI95% represents a 95% confidence interval; nobs represents the total number of observation samples; $\hat{\mu}_{\mathrm{median}} $ represents the median of samples

    表  1  深海散射层向上迁移的特征值

    Tab.  1  Upward migration characteristics of DSL

    季节 样本数量 开始时间(T1) 结束时间(T2) 迁移速率/(cm·s−1
    均值 最大值 最小值 均值 最大值 最小值 均值 最大值 最小值
    整体 201 16:20 18:43 13:06 18:31 20:41 16:29 5.28 ± 1.53 10.66 2.2
    夏季 86 16:50 18:43 14:31 19:08 20:41 17:45 5.11 ± 1.48 9.59 2.2
    冬季 115 15:57 17:21 13:06 18:03 19:29 16:29 5.42 ± 1.55 10.66 2.31
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  深海散射层向下迁移的特征值

    Tab.  2  Downward migration characteristics of DSL

    季节 样本数量 开始时间(T1) 结束时间(T2) 迁移速率/(cm·s−1
    均值 最大值 最小值 均值 最大值 最小值 均值 最大值 最小值
    整体 201 4:38 6:20 1:22 6:52 9:56 3:23 5.56 ± 2.13 12.26 1.44
    夏季 86 4:02 5:33 1:22 6:18 9:56 3:23 5.55 ± 2.23 11.33 2.41
    冬季 115 5:06 6:20 3:05 7:17 9:29 5:10 5.57 ± 2.06 12.26 1.44
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同纬度海区深海散射层昼夜垂直迁移特征值

    Tab.  3  Characteristics of DVM in different latitude regions of DSL

    迁移方向 纬度范围 样本数量 开始时间(T1) 结束时间(T2) 迁移速率/(cm·s−1
    均值 最大值 最小值 均值 最大值 最小值 均值 最大值 最小值
    向上迁移 20°~31°S 124 16:20 18:22 14:00 18:37 20:41 17:10 5.50 ± 1.26 9.59 2.49
    31°~43°S 71 16:23 18:43 13:06 18:25 20:41 16:38 4.99 ± 1.86 10.66 2.2
    向下迁移 20°~31°S 127 4:30 6:10 2:24 6:49 9:56 4:19 5.98 ± 2.05 12.26 2.82
    31°~43°S 72 4:52 6:20 1:22 6:56 9:12 3:23 4.86 ± 2.12 11.01 1.44
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同经度深海散射层昼夜垂直迁移特征值

    Tab.  4  Characteristics of DVM in different longitude regions of DSL

    迁移方向 经度范围 样本数量 开始时间(T1) 结束时间(T2) 迁移速率/(cm·s−1
    均值 最大值 最小值 均值 最大值 最小值 均值 最大值 最小值
    向上迁移 44°~52.5°E 13 16:39 18:11 15:18 18:25 19:52 17:44 6.36 ± 1.15 8.58 4.62
    52.5°~67.5°E 157 16:20 18:43 13:06 18:31 20:41 16:38 5.31 ± 1.58 10.66 2.2
    82.5°~97.5°E 26 16:09 17:04 14:51 18:31 19:47 16:29 4.71 ± 1.18 7.67 2.46
    向下迁移 44°~52.5°E 12 4:41 5:35 3:09 6:39 7:46 4:43 6.82 ± 2.38 12.26 3.86
    52.5°~67.5°E 157 4:41 6:20 1:22 6:53 9:56 3:23 5.62 ± 2.08 11.79 1.44
    82.5°~97.5°E 27 4:24 5:49 2:24 6:49 9:12 4:19 4.88 ± 2.14 10 1.64
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-09-05
  • 修回日期:  2023-10-18
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-12-27
  • 刊出日期:  2024-01-01

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