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潮滩前缘盐沼植被簇团与潮沟系统演变相互作用研究

张荣成 张晓天 曹浩冰 李寿千 陆彦 陆永军 周曾

张荣成,张晓天,曹浩冰,等. 潮滩前缘盐沼植被簇团与潮沟系统演变相互作用研究[J]. 海洋学报,2023,45(4):109–120 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2023073
引用本文: 张荣成,张晓天,曹浩冰,等. 潮滩前缘盐沼植被簇团与潮沟系统演变相互作用研究[J]. 海洋学报,2023,45(4):109–120 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2023073
Zhang Rongcheng,Zhang Xiaotian,Cao Haobing, et al. Interaction between marginal salt marsh patches and tidal channel evolution on tidal flats[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2023, 45(4):109–120 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2023073
Citation: Zhang Rongcheng,Zhang Xiaotian,Cao Haobing, et al. Interaction between marginal salt marsh patches and tidal channel evolution on tidal flats[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2023, 45(4):109–120 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2023073

潮滩前缘盐沼植被簇团与潮沟系统演变相互作用研究

doi: 10.12284/hyxb2023073
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金面上项目(41976156);江苏省碳达峰碳中和科技创新专项(BK20220020);江苏省优秀青年科学基金(BK20200077)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张荣成(1997-),女,山东省泰安市人,主要从事潮滩生物动力地貌模拟研究。E-mail: rczhang@hhu.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    周曾(1986-),教授,主要从事河口海岸地貌学、潮滩系统生物动力过程等方面研究。E-mail: zeng.zhou@hhu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P737.12

Interaction between marginal salt marsh patches and tidal channel evolution on tidal flats

  • 摘要: 潮滩前缘盐沼植被簇团可以通过改变水动力及泥沙运动等过程影响潮沟系统的地形地貌,而潮沟系统的地形特征也会影响盐沼簇团的生长、扩张与侵蚀,但对盐沼簇团与潮沟系统地貌演变的相互作用机制尚缺乏认识。针对这一问题,本文构建了考虑盐沼植被动态演变的潮滩生物动力地貌耦合模型,模拟了盐沼植被簇团生长扩张与潮沟系统地貌演变过程,分析了不同初始数量的盐沼植被簇团与潮沟系统的空间格局及形态参数间的双向反馈。结果表明,潮沟先迅速向海陆两侧延伸,后发育出大量分汊;盐沼簇团向周边扩张后未被潮沟切割区域逐渐连成片。少量盐沼簇团能够增加潮沟密度,促进边缘冲刷式潮沟系统的发育。潮沟的走向受盐沼簇团分布位置及数量的影响,多个盐沼植被簇团间的水流集中比单个簇团的边缘水流冲刷更易形成潮沟。在盐沼植被簇团与潮沟系统共同发育初期,潮沟系统发育受盐沼植被簇团的促进作用较大,后期潮沟内比簇团边缘更易形成水流汇聚,盐沼簇团的影响逐渐由促进作用转为稳定作用。此外,潮沟的存在限制了盐沼植被的横向扩散,切割了盐沼植被簇团,影响盐沼植被的空间分布格局。本研究揭示了盐沼植被簇团与潮沟系统地貌耦合演化机制,可为盐沼潮滩生态系统保护修复提供科学依据。
  • 图  1  江苏斗龙港潮滩图(据文献[23]修改)

    Fig.  1  Doulong Harbor tidal flats, Jiangsu, China (modified from reference [23])

    图  2  初始地形设置及盐沼植被簇团分布(据文献[42]修改)

    红色五角星处为簇团具体位置

    Fig.  2  Initial landform setting and distribution of salt marsh vegetation patches (modified from reference [42])

    The red five-pointed star is the specific location of the patches

    图  3  潮沟系统及盐沼植被簇团发育过程对比

    以盐沼植被簇团数量等于2为例,绿色部分为植被覆盖区域

    Fig.  3  Comparison of the development process of tidal channel system and salt marsh vegetation patches

    Number of vegetation patches is 2, the green area is covered by the vegetation

    图  4  不同时间的断面高程及生物量图

    以盐沼植被簇团数量等于2为例

    Fig.  4  Cross-sectional elevation and biomass at different times

    Number of salt marsh vegetation patches are 2

    图  5  有无植被结果对比

    nt=500,绿色部分为植被覆盖区域

    Fig.  5  Comparison of results with and without vegetation

    nt=500, the green area is covered by the vegetation

    图  6  不同分布盐沼植被簇团作用下的结果对比

    nt=500,绿色部分为植被覆盖区域

    Fig.  6  Results under the action of different distribution of salt marsh vegetation patches

    nt=500, the green area is covered by the vegetation

    图  7  潮沟及簇团参数与盐沼植簇团分布的关系

    Fig.  7  Relationship between parameters of tidal creeks and patches and the distribution of salt marsh vegetation patches

    图  8  断面高程及生物量图(nt=500)

    Fig.  8  Cross-sectional elevation and biomass (nt=500)

    图  9  盐沼植被簇团作用下的地形及植被发育过程

    Fig.  9  Landform and vegetation development under the action of salt marsh vegetation patches

    表  1  模型参数汇总

    Tab.  1  Summary of model parameters

    模型参数取值单位取值依据
    水动力参数无植被滩面曼宁系数n00.02无量纲Mariotti[33]
    有植被滩面曼宁系数nB0.08无量纲Mariotti[33]
    潮差4m江苏沿海实地资料
    潮周期12.5h江苏沿海实地资料
    泥沙参数沉积物密度2650kg/m3Mariotti[33]
    沉降速度0.2mm/sMariotti[33]
    临界起动切应力0.2N/m2Mariotti[33]
    临界沉降切应力1 000N/m2Mariotti[33]
    中值粒径D505μmMariotti[33]
    植被参数生长速度r1step−1Best等[32]
    最大植被密度承载力K1 200株/m2Best等[32]
    植被扩散系数D0.5m2/stepBest等[32]
    受潮流切应力影响的植被死亡系数Cτ30(株∙m−2)/( N∙m−2Best等[32]
    植被死亡临界切应力τcr,p0.26N/m2Best等[32]
    受淹没影响的植被死亡系数Cinund2 000(株∙m−2)/mTemmerman等[21]
    植被临界淹没高度Hcr,p0.1mTemmerman等[21]
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-08-07
  • 修回日期:  2022-10-28
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-03-30
  • 刊出日期:  2023-03-31

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