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海南岛西部海域球形棕囊藻赤潮过程环境因子变化特征及影响因素分析

符传辉 陈峻峰 刘志媛 张燕伟 刘焕淳 吕淑果

符传辉,陈峻峰,刘志媛,等. 海南岛西部海域球形棕囊藻赤潮过程环境因子变化特征及影响因素分析[J]. 海洋学报,2023,45(5):27–38 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2023062
引用本文: 符传辉,陈峻峰,刘志媛,等. 海南岛西部海域球形棕囊藻赤潮过程环境因子变化特征及影响因素分析[J]. 海洋学报,2023,45(5):27–38 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2023062
Fu Chuanhui,Chen Junfeng,Liu Zhiyuan, et al. Analysis on the variation characteristics of environmental factors and influencing factors in the process of Phaeocystis globosa bloom in the western waters of Hainan Island[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2023, 45(5):27–38 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2023062
Citation: Fu Chuanhui,Chen Junfeng,Liu Zhiyuan, et al. Analysis on the variation characteristics of environmental factors and influencing factors in the process of Phaeocystis globosa bloom in the western waters of Hainan Island[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2023, 45(5):27–38 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2023062

海南岛西部海域球形棕囊藻赤潮过程环境因子变化特征及影响因素分析

doi: 10.12284/hyxb2023062
基金项目: 2019年海南省基础与应用基础研究计划(自然科学领域)高层次人才项目(2019RC353)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    符传辉(1998-),男,海南省文昌市人,主要从事海洋生态环境保护研究。E-mail: 2449441919@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    吕淑果(1976-),女,内蒙古锡林郭勒盟人,研究员,博士,主要研究方向为海洋生态学。E-mail: shuguolv@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P735;Q178.53

Analysis on the variation characteristics of environmental factors and influencing factors in the process of Phaeocystis globosa bloom in the western waters of Hainan Island

  • 摘要: 通过2022年3月10−15日在海南岛西部昌江昌化沿岸海域开展为期6 d的现场跟踪调查,结合水文气象资料分析了本次球形棕囊藻(Phaeocystis globosa)赤潮生消过程环境因子变化特征及影响因素。本次赤潮高峰期球形棕囊藻丰度及CODMn分别高达3.10×108 cells/L及35 mg/L,远高于其他海域报道记录。赤潮暴发前降雨及风浪扰动促进了陆源输入及沉积营养盐释放,为赤潮暴发提供物质条件。气温骤升诱导赤潮发生,更大潮差及较低风速为囊体沿岸聚集创造了有利的外部条件。赤潮消亡过程中,DIN、PO4-P、DO、CODMn及Mn浓度显著下降,其中DIN及PO4-P是本次赤潮消亡的限制因子,DO、CODMn及Mn为本次赤潮消亡的重要特征因子。黄色囊体出现破碎后,Chlorophyll a及SiO3-Si浓度也迅速下降,随后缓慢上升甚至高于高峰期浓度水平,此时以旋链角毛藻(Chaetoceros curvisetus)等代表的硅藻丰度逐渐增加。研究还初步探索了本次赤潮的基本生消过程,为进一步揭示本区域球形棕囊藻赤潮爆发机理提供重要参考依据。
  • 图  1  昌江昌化沿岸海域赤潮跟踪调查站位

    Fig.  1  Station of the bloom tracking survey in the coastal waters of Changhua, Changjiang

    图  2  CJ1站位镜检及现场图

    a, b. 囊体内无鞭毛不动细胞100×/400×;c. 游离的无鞭毛不动细胞400×;d. 具鞭毛游动细胞400× ;e. 高峰期赤潮水体;f. 黄色囊体;g. 透明囊体;h. 透明囊体碎片

    Fig.  2  Microscopic examination and on-the-spot map of Station CJ1

    a, b. Flagellar-less immobile cells in the colony 100×/400×; c. free flagellar-less immobile cells 400×; d. flagellar motile cells 400×; e. the bloom during the peak period; f. yellow colony; g. hyaline colony; h. hyaline colony fragment

    图  3  赤潮前后日平均气温及风速逐日变化

    Fig.  3  Daily variation of daily mean temperature and wind speed before and after the bloom

    图  4  调查期间水化学因子逐日变化

    Fig.  4  Daily variation of hydrochemical factors during the survey period

    图  5  调查期间富营养化指数逐日变化

    Fig.  5  Daily variation of eutrophication index during the survey period

    图  6  调查期间营养盐比例逐日变化

    Fig.  6  Daily variation in the proportion of nutrients during the survey period

    图  7  调查期间叶绿素a浓度逐日变化

    Fig.  7  Daily variation of Chl a concentration during the survey period

    图  8  调查期间球形棕囊藻与环境因子的相关系数

    **表示p<0.01,极显著性相关;*表示0.01<p<0.05,显著性相关;否则差异不显著

    Fig.  8  Correlation coefficient between Phaeocystis globosa and environmental factors during the survey period

    ** represents extremely significant correlation at p<0.01, * represents significant correlation at 0.01<p<0.05, other no significant

    图  9  海南岛西北部海域两次球形棕囊藻赤潮前日平均气温及降雨逐日变化

    Fig.  9  Daily variation of daily mean temperature and rainfall before two Phaeocystis globosa bloom in the northwestern area of Hainan Island

    图  10  调查期间CJ1站位浮游植物与叶绿素a浓度对比

    Fig.  10  Comparative of phytoplankton and Chl a concentration in Station CJ1 during the survey period

    图  11  昌江昌化沿岸海域球形棕囊藻赤潮生消流程图

    虚线框内的流程表示赤潮爆发前根据背景数据资料进行的推测,其余流程为现场跟踪调查的测定结果

    Fig.  11  Flow map of generation and elimination of Phaeocystis globosa bloom in the coastal waters of Changhua, Changjiang

    The flow in the dotted frame shows the conjecture based on the background data before the bloom, and the rest of the process is the results of the on-site follow-up investigation

    表  1  调查期间CJ1站位浮游植物种类组成及丰度(单位:cells/L)逐日变化情况

    Tab.  1  Daily variation of species composition and abundance (unit: cells/L) of phytoplankton in the Station CJ1 during the survey period

    门类种类拉丁名3月10日3月11日3月12日3月13日3月14日3月15日
    硅藻门双眉藻Amphora sp.2.67×103
    奇异棍形藻Bacillaria paradoxa3.33×104
    中国盒形藻Biddulphia sinensis1.33×1031.33×1031.33×103
    大洋角管藻Cerataulina pelagica1.33×103
    窄隙角毛藻Chaetoceros affinis1.33×1036.40×104
    绕孢角毛藻Chaetoceros cinctus2.67×1042.80×1041.20×105
    扁面角毛藻Chaetoceros compressus1.87×104
    旋链角毛藻Chaetoceros curvisetus1.20×1041.60×1041.27×105
    柔弱角毛藻Chaetoceros debilis6.67×1031.47×1044.67×104
    幷基角毛藻Chaetoceros decipiens2.67×104
    粗股角毛藻Chaetoceros femur4.00×103
    洛氏角毛藻Chaetoceros lorenzianus4.00×1036.67×1034.80×104
    拟弯角毛藻Chaetoceros pseudocurvisetus1.33×1033.20×1044.13×104
    暹罗角毛藻Chaetoceros siamense4.00×1033.33×1043.33×104
    聚生角毛藻Chaetoceros socialis9.33×103
    角毛藻Chaetoceros spp.1.60×1045.87×1046.67×1038.00×104
    圆柱角毛藻Chaetoceros teres1.73×1044.00×1032.93×104
    扭链角毛藻Chaetoceros tortissimus1.47×1044.93×104
    圆筛藻Coscinodiscus spp.1.07×1044.00×1036.67×1039.33×1031.33×103
    椭圆双壁藻Diploneis elliptica5.33×1031.33×1038.00×1034.00×103
    太阳双尾藻Ditylum sol1.33×103
    长角弯角藻Eucampia cornuta1.33×103
    丹麦细柱藻Leptocylindrus danicus5.33×1031.33×1032.67×1031.87×1041.47×1048.00×103
    颗粒直链藻Melosira granulata2.93×1041.33×1041.07×1052.67×104
    念珠直链藻Melosira moniliformis5.33×103
    舟形藻Navicula spp.1.60×1041.33×1031.87×1041.20×1042.40×1041.33×104
    新月菱形藻Nitzschia closterium3.60×1041.33×1031.20×1045.33×1038.13×1041.07×104
    菱形藻Nitzschia spp.2.13×1041.33×1031.20×1048.00×1032.27×1049.33×103
    美丽斜纹藻Pleurosigmaformosum1.33×1031.33×1031.33×103
    柔弱拟菱形藻Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima4.00×1036.67×1036.67×1039.33×1032.40×1044.00×103
    尖刺拟菱形藻Pseudo-nitzschia pungens8.00×1031.07×1042.00×1045.33×103
    翼根管藻Rhizosolenia alata1.33×103
    螺端根管藻Rhizosolenia cochlea1.33×103
    厚刺根管藻Rhizosolenia crassispina1.33×103
    斯托根管藻Rhizosolenia fragilissima1.33×1035.33×1035.33×103
    覆瓦根管藻Rhizosolenia imbricata1.33×103
    刚毛根管藻Rhizosolenia setigera1.33×1031.33×1032.67×1036.67×103
    中华根管藻Rhizosolenia sinensis2.67×1032.67×1032.67×1031.33×103
    笔尖根管藻Rhizosolenia styliformis1.33×1031.33×103
    中肋骨条藻Skeletonema costatum2.53×1048.00×1031.33×1041.12×105
    塔形冠盖藻Stephanopyxis turris8.00×103
    芽形双菱藻Surirella gemma1.33×103
    伽氏针杆藻Synedra fulgens2.67×103
    针杆藻Synedra spp.6.67×1031.20×1049.33×1031.33×1044.00×103
    肘状针杆藻Synedra ulna1.33×1031.33×103
    菱形海线藻Thalassionema nitzschioides6.67×1035.33×1039.33×1031.47×104
    密联海链藻Thalassiosira condensata4.00×1032.00×104
    佛氏海毛藻Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii4.00×103
    大龙骨藻Tropidoneis maxima1.33×1031.33×103
    蓝藻门红海束毛藻Trichodesmillm erythraeum2.53×1048.67×104
    黄藻门海洋卡盾藻Chattonella marina1.07×1044.00×1034.00×1038.00×1035.33×103
    金藻门球形棕囊藻Phaeocystis globosa3.10×1081.17×1083.97×1064.23×1065.54×1068.52×105
    注:加粗字体表示球形棕囊藻名称及丰度,下划线加粗字体表示调查期间其他浮游植物第一优势种名称及丰度,−表示未鉴定出该物种。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-10-09
  • 修回日期:  2022-12-02
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-12-14
  • 刊出日期:  2023-05-01

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