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基于DNA条形码技术的珠江口春季鱼卵和仔稚鱼种类组成和分布特征的研究

孔啸兰 张帅 陈作志 林昭进 蒋佩文 江艳娥

孔啸兰,张帅,陈作志,等. 基于DNA条形码技术的珠江口春季鱼卵和仔稚鱼种类组成和分布特征的研究[J]. 海洋学报,2023,45(3):52–65 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2023032
引用本文: 孔啸兰,张帅,陈作志,等. 基于DNA条形码技术的珠江口春季鱼卵和仔稚鱼种类组成和分布特征的研究[J]. 海洋学报,2023,45(3):52–65 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2023032
Kong Xiaolan,Zhang Shuai,Chen Zuozhi, et al. Species composition and distribution characteristic of fish eggs and larvae based on DNA barcoding technology of the Zhujiang River Estuary in spring[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2023, 45(3):52–65 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2023032
Citation: Kong Xiaolan,Zhang Shuai,Chen Zuozhi, et al. Species composition and distribution characteristic of fish eggs and larvae based on DNA barcoding technology of the Zhujiang River Estuary in spring[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2023, 45(3):52–65 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2023032

基于DNA条形码技术的珠江口春季鱼卵和仔稚鱼种类组成和分布特征的研究

doi: 10.12284/hyxb2023032
基金项目: 广东省重点领域研发计划(2020B1111030001);南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)人才团队引进重大专项(GML2019ZD0605);中国水产科学研究院中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(2020TD05)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    孔啸兰(1986-),女,河南省汤阴县人,助理研究员,主要从事渔业资源和分子生物学研究。E-mail: weilankong.2005@163.com

    通讯作者:

    陈作志,男,研究员,主要从事海洋生态和渔业资源研究。E-mail: zzchen2000@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S932.4

Species composition and distribution characteristic of fish eggs and larvae based on DNA barcoding technology of the Zhujiang River Estuary in spring

  • 摘要: 采用线粒体COⅠ和12S rRNA基因片段作为DNA条形码,分析珠江口春季鱼卵和仔稚鱼种类组成和分布特征,并探究两种条形码在鱼卵和仔稚鱼种类鉴定中的适用性。研究共扩增样本391个,成功鉴定的鱼卵和仔稚鱼共7目25科42属60种(2种未鉴定到种)。其中,以鲈形目(Perciformes)种类和数量最多,种类数占比为51.6%,数量占比为47.91%;其次为鲱形目(Clupeiformes),种类数占比为25%,数量占比为34.56%。优势种10种,其中凤鲚(Coilia mystus)优势度最高,为0.071;棘头梅童鱼(Collichthys lucidus)最低,为0.014。COⅠ和12S rRNA基因片段扩增结果显示,鱼卵和仔稚鱼12S rRNA基因片段扩增成功率(95.60%)明显高于COⅠ基因(43.22%)。遗传距离和ABGD分析显示,COⅠ基因种内遗传距离为0~0.005(平均0.003),种间遗传距离为0.061~0.376(平均0.253),两者间存在明显的“条形码间隙”,ABGD划分结果与数据库比对结果一致;12S rRNA基因种内遗传距离为0~0.011(平均0.007),种间遗传距离为0.007~0.487(平均0.283),龟鰉(Chelon haematocheila)和前鳞龟鰉(Chelon affinis)种间遗传距离与种内遗传距离不形成“条形码间隙”,ABGD将其划分为同一种。系统发育分析显示,在种的分类阶元,所有物种均能聚为独立分支,得到有效区分。综上,线粒体COⅠ和12S rRNA条形码可有效鉴定珠江口大多数鱼卵和仔稚鱼,但是COⅠ基因扩增成功率较低,12S rRNA基因部分近缘物种存在区分困难的情况,两种基因结合使用更能提高鱼卵和仔稚鱼种类鉴定的成功率和准确性。
  • 图  1  珠江口采样站位

    Fig.  1  Sampling stations in the Zhujiang River Estuary

    图  2  ABGD方法对COⅠ序列(a)和12S rRNA序列(b)的划分结果

    Fig.  2  Partition results of COⅠ sequence (a) and 12S rRNA sequence (b) by ABGD method

    图  3  基于COⅠ序列构建的系统发育树

    ABGD的DNA鉴定与比对鉴定物种数目一致,未用红点显示出

    Fig.  3  Phylogenetic tree based on COⅠ sequences

    The DNA identification from ABGD is consistent with the number of identified species and are not displayed through the red dot

    图  4  基于12S rRNA序列构建的系统发育树

    ABGD的DNA鉴定通过红色圆点显示在外围

    Fig.  4  Phylogenetic tree based on 12S rRNA sequences

    The DNA identification from ABGD is displayed on the periphery through the red dot

    表  1  具体采样时间和站位

    Tab.  1  Specific sampling time and stations

    站位采样时间水深/m表层盐度
    D12020年4月3日241.45
    D22020年4月3日157.85
    D32020年4月2日66.95
    D42020年4月2日1025.6
    D52020年4月1日6.58
    D62020年4月1日923.57
    D72020年4月1日2432.52
    D82020年3月31日1328.82
    D92020年3月31日1827.82
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同站位鱼卵及仔稚鱼种类和数量

    Tab.  2  Species and quantity of eggs and larvae at different stations

    站位总扩增数有效数种类数
    鱼卵仔稚鱼鱼卵仔稚鱼鱼卵仔稚鱼
    D142442453
    D239038090
    D331172817147
    D4400400150
    D5408408144
    D6401401201
    D7420420180
    D8405365183
    D9384374104
    总计35239343395215
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  珠江口春季鱼卵及仔稚鱼种类组成和数量分布

    Tab.  3  Species composition and quantity distribution of fish eggs and larvae in Zhujiang River Estuary in spring

    样本量/个相似度/%站位
    12S rRNACOⅠD1D2D3D4D5D6D7D8D9
    鲱形目
    Clupeiformes
    锯腹鳓科
    Pristigasteridae
    鳓属
    Ilisha
    鳓鱼
    Ilisha elongata
    110099.85
    鳀科
    Engraulidae
    棱鳀属
    Thryssa
    黄吻棱鳀
    Thryssa vitrirostris
    610099.82
    赤鼻棱鳀
    Thryssa kammalensis
    6100
    杜氏棱鳀
    Thryssa dussumieri
    410099.85
    汉氏棱鳀
    Thryssa hamiltonii
    1100100
    侧带小公鱼属
    Stolephorus
    岛屿侧带小公鱼
    Stolephorus insularis
    20100100
    康氏侧带小公鱼
    Stolephorus commersonnii
    110099.40
    鲚属
    Coilia
    凤鲚
    Coilia mystus
    61100100
    鲱科
    Clupeidae
    小沙丁鱼属
    Sardinella
    黄泽小沙丁鱼
    Sardinella lemuru
    17100
    隆背小沙丁鱼
    Sardinella gibbosa
    4100
    裘氏小沙丁鱼
    Sardinella jussieu
    2100
    斑鰶属
    Konosirus
    斑鰶
    Konosirus punctatus
    199
    海鰶属
    Nematalosa
    日本海鰶
    Nematalosa japonica
    2100100
    高鼻海鰶
    Nematalosa nasus
    1100100
    鰶属
    Clupanodon
    花鰶
    Clupanodon thrissa
    5100
    胡瓜鱼目
    Osmeriformes
    胡瓜鱼科
    Osmeridae
    银鱼属
    Salanx
    居氏银鱼
    Salanx cuvieri
    19999.69
    仙女鱼目
    Aulopiformes
    狗母鱼科
    Synodontidae
    蛇鲻属
    Saurida
    多齿蛇鲻
    Saurida tumbil
    210099.84
    龙头鱼属
    Harpadon
    龙头鱼
    Harpadon nehereus
    1100100
    鲻形目
    Mugiliformes
    鲻科
    Mugilidae
    莫鲻属
    Moolgarda
    长鳍莫鲻
    Moolgarda cunnesius
    6100100
    龟鰉属
    Chelon
    龟鰉
    Chelon haematocheila
    9100100
    前鳞龟鰉
    Chelon affinis
    1100100
    鲉形目Scorpaeniformes鲉科
    Scorpaenidae
    鬼鲉属
    Inimicus
    日本鬼鲉
    Inimicus japonicus
    110099.84
    鲬科
    Platycephalidae
    鳄鲬属
    Cociella
    鳄鲬
    Cociella crocodilus
    2100100
    瞳鲬属
    Inegocia
    日本瞳鲬
    Inegocia japonica
    9100100
    鲈形目
    Perciformes
    双边鱼科
    Ambassidae
    双边鱼属
    Ambassis
    裸头双边鱼
    Ambassis gymnocephalus
    11100100
    鮨科
    Serranidae
    石斑鱼属
    Epinephelus
    斑带石斑鱼
    Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus
    3100
    天竺鲷科
    Apogonidae
    天竺鲷属
    Apogon
    宽条天竺鲷
    Apogon fasciatus
    1100100
    鱚科
    Sillaginidae
    鱚属
    Sillago
    多鳞鱚
    Sillago sihama
    5100100
    少鳞鱚
    Sillago japonica
    1100100
    鲾科
    Leiognathidae
    项鲾属
    Nuchequula
    项斑项鲾
    Nuchequula nuchalis
    18100100
    光胸鲾属
    Photopectoralis
    黄斑光胸鲾
    Photopectoralis bindus
    4100100
    银鲈科
    Gerreidae
    银鲈属
    Gerres
    红尾银鲈
    Gerres erythrourus
    6100100
    仿石鲈科
    Haemulidae
    少棘胡椒鲷属
    Diagramma
    密點少棘胡椒鲷
    Diagramma picta
    8100100
    矶鲈属
    Parapristipoma
    三线矶鲈
    Parapristipoma trilineatum
    2100100
    金线鱼科
    Nemipteridae
    金线鱼属
    Nemipterus
    日本金线鱼
    Nemipterus japonicus
    28100100
    鲷科
    Sparidae
    棘鲷属
    Acanthopagrus
    灰鳍棘鲷
    Acanthopagrus berda
    1100100
    黑棘鲷
    Acanthopagrus schlegelii
    4100100
    太平洋棘鲷
    Acanthopagrus pacificus
    1299100
    石首鱼科
    Sciaenidae

    387.5
    牙鱛属
    Otolithes
    红牙鱛
    Otolithes ruber
    310099.64
    黄姑鱼属
    Nibea
    黄姑鱼
    Nibea albiflora
    3100100
    梅童鱼属
    Collichthys
    棘头梅童鱼
    Collichthys lucidus
    24100100
    白姑鱼属
    Pennahia
    截尾白姑鱼
    Pennahia anea
    199
    叫姑鱼属
    Johnius
    叫姑鱼
    Johnius grypotus
    18100
    卡氏叫姑鱼
    Johnius carouna
    410099.83
    皮氏叫姑鱼
    Johnius belangerii
    5100
    屈氏叫姑鱼
    Johnius trewavasae
    3100
    枝鳔石首鱼属
    Dendrophysa
    勒氏枝鳔石首鱼
    Dendrophysa russelii
    110099.85
    隆头鱼科
    Labridae
    海猪鱼属
    Halichoeres
    黑带海猪鱼
    Halichoeres nigrescens
    4100100
    鳚科
    Blenniidae
    宽颌鳚属
    Laiphognathus
    长棘宽颌鳚
    Laiphognathus longispinis
    1100100
    肩鳃鳚属
    Omobranchus
    斑头肩鳃鳚
    Omobranchus fasciolatoceps
    110099.69
    斑點肩鰓鳚
    Omobranchus punctatus
    199.84
    鴨科
    Callionymidae
    斜棘鴨属
    Repomucenus
    斜棘鴨属未定种
    Repomucenus sp.
    1100100
    虾虎鱼科
    Gobiidae
    狼牙虾虎鱼属
    Odontamblyopus
    红狼牙虾虎鱼
    Odontamblyopus rubicundus
    5100
    鲳科
    Stromateidae
    鲳属
    Pampus
    灰鲳
    Pampus cinereus
    1100
    鲽形目
    Pleuronectiformes
    鳎科
    Soleidae
    鳎属
    Solea
    卵鳎
    Solea ovata
    12100100
    舌鳎科
    Cynoglossidae
    舌鳎属
    Cynoglossus
    中华舌鳎
    Cynoglossus sinicus
    14100
    长体舌鳎
    Cynoglossus lingua
    1100
    斑头舌鳎
    Cynoglossus puncticeps
    1100
    巨鳞舌鳎
    Cynoglossus macrolepidotus
    7100100
    注:●表示本种类在本站位数量占比为50%~100%;◎表示本种类在本站位数量占比为10%~50%;○表示本种类在本站位数量占比为0~10%(不包括0);─表示未扩增成功或本种类在本站位无。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-08-10
  • 修回日期:  2022-09-22
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-10-08
  • 刊出日期:  2023-02-01

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