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深圳湾和茅洲河湿地浅层沉积物孔隙水中营养盐和重金属赋存特征及其界面扩散通量研究

罗满华 张丽聪 李海龙 郭跃华 肖凯

罗满华,张丽聪,李海龙,等. 深圳湾和茅洲河湿地浅层沉积物孔隙水中营养盐和重金属赋存特征及其界面扩散通量研究[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(x):1–12 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022162
引用本文: 罗满华,张丽聪,李海龙,等. 深圳湾和茅洲河湿地浅层沉积物孔隙水中营养盐和重金属赋存特征及其界面扩散通量研究[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(x):1–12 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022162
Luo Manhua,Zhang Licong,Li Hailong, et al. Study on the characteristics and diffusion fluxes of nutrients and heavy metals in shallow sediment porewater of Shenzhen Bay and Maozhou River[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(x):1–12 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022162
Citation: Luo Manhua,Zhang Licong,Li Hailong, et al. Study on the characteristics and diffusion fluxes of nutrients and heavy metals in shallow sediment porewater of Shenzhen Bay and Maozhou River[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(x):1–12 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022162

深圳湾和茅洲河湿地浅层沉积物孔隙水中营养盐和重金属赋存特征及其界面扩散通量研究

doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022162
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金面上项目(42177046);深圳市科技计划(JSGG20210802153535002)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    罗满华(1991-),男,江西省吉安市人,博士研究生,主要从事滨海含水层地下水流及溶质运移的数值模拟及其生态环境效应研究。E-mail: manhualuo2015@163.com

    通讯作者:

    肖凯(1990-),副研究员,主要从事近海水质评估与滨海湿地环境保护研究。E-mail: xiaok@sustech.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P736.4

Study on the characteristics and diffusion fluxes of nutrients and heavy metals in shallow sediment porewater of Shenzhen Bay and Maozhou River

  • 摘要: 为了解湿地微环境中营养盐和重金属的分布特征及其内在联系,并进一步估算两者在沉积物-水界面的扩散通量,本文借助薄膜扩散梯度技术(DGT)获取深圳湾和茅洲河红树林湿地浅层沉积物孔隙水中营养盐和重金属浓度以及二维高分辨有效态硫浓度分布。研究结果表明:除了${\rm{NO}}_3^- $和Mo外,茅洲河沉积物孔隙水中${\rm{NH}}_4^+ $、P与S2−和重金属Cd、Co、Cu、Fe、Ni、Pb与Zn的平均浓度均高于上覆水和深圳湾水体中平均浓度,这说明茅洲河沉积物孔隙水的污染程度更高,但深圳湾水体中营养盐和重金属等污染物来源多于茅洲河。茅洲河有效态硫浓度空间分布不均匀,存在明显的生物扰动通道,浓度值也随着沉积物深度逐渐增高。深圳湾在沉积物-水界面处营养盐和重金属的扩散通量为−0.27~0.006 5 μg/(cm2·d),茅洲河的扩散通量为−0.061~0.069 μg/(cm2·d)。
  • 图  1  研究区位置及采样点分布

    Fig.  1  Location of the study area and sampling stations

    图  2  DGT装置示意图

    Fig.  2  The diagram of DGT devices

    图  3  沉积物-水界面上氮、磷和硫浓度垂向分布

    SZB和MZR分别代表深圳湾和茅洲河;蓝色和黄色背景颜色分别表示上覆水和沉积物中孔隙水

    Fig.  3  Vertical distribution of N, P and S contents at sediment-water interface

    SZB and MZR represent Shenzhen Bay and Maozhou River, respectively; blue and yellow backgrounds indicate the overlying water and pore water in sediment, respectively

    图  4  沉积物-水界面上重金属浓度垂向分布

    SZB和MZR分别代表深圳湾和茅洲河

    Fig.  4  Vertical distribution of heavy metal contents across the sediment-water interface

    SZB and MZR represent Shenzhen Bay and Maozhou River, respectively

    图  5  深圳湾和茅洲河DGT有效态铁、硫、磷和钼的线性相关性

    **代表在0.01层上显著,*代表在0.05层上显著

    Fig.  5  Linear correlations among DGT-labile Fe, DGT-labile S, DGT-labile P, and DGT-labile Mo in Shenzhen Bay and Maozhou River

    **representing significance at 0.01 level, *representing significance at 0.05 level

    图  6  深圳湾和茅洲河DGT有效态硫的二维空间分布

    Fig.  6  2D distributions of the DGT-labile S in Shenzhen Bay and Maozhou River

    图  7  深圳湾和茅洲河营养盐和重金属在沉积物-水界面扩散通量

    Fig.  7  Diffusion fluxes of nutrients and heavy metals at sediment-water interface in Shenzhen Bay and Maozhou River

    图  8  深圳湾和茅洲河沉积物-水界面上各种参数 PCA 图

    Fig.  8  PCA of chemical parameters across the sediment-water interface in Shenzhen Bay and Maozhou River

    表  1  各种参数的提取率和扩散系数

    Tab.  1  Extraction rate and diffusion coefficient of various parameters

    参数NH4+NO3-PS2-CdCoCuFeMoNiPbZn
    提取率0.841.030.960.950.940.981.030.890.981.050.960.88
    扩散系数23.967.538.2221.597.647.827.897.678.277.8310.078.25
    注:扩散系数单位为10-6 cm2/s,获取网址为http://www.easysensor.net/
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  深圳湾和茅洲河在上覆水和孔隙水中氮、磷和硫浓度(单位:mg/L)

    Tab.  2  The concentrations of NH4+, NO3-, P, S2- in overlying water and pore water of Shenzhen Bay and Maozhou River (unit: mg/L)

    站点参数${\rm{NH}}_4^+ $${\rm{NO}}_3^- $PS2−
    深圳湾上覆水范围0.05~0.200.07~0.090.04~0.100.003~0.12
    均值0.120.080.060.05
    孔隙水范围0.04~0.240.06~0.130.06~0.290.01~0.15
    均值0.070.090.160.07
    茅洲河上覆水范围0.07~0.130.39~0.540.07~0.450.01~0.13
    均值0.100.450.210.06
    孔隙水范围0.05~0.300.09~0.400.53~2.520.15~0.68
    均值0.110.170.890.45
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  深圳湾和茅洲河在上覆水和孔隙水中重金属浓度

    Tab.  3  The concentrations of heavy metals in overlying water and pore water of Shenzhen Bay and Maozhou River

    站点参数Cd浓度/
    (µg·L−1
    Co浓度/
    (µg·L−1
    Cu浓度/
    (µg·L−1
    Fe浓度/
    (mg·L−1
    Mo浓度/
    (µg·L−1
    Ni浓度/
    (µg·L−1
    Pb浓度/
    (µg·L−1
    Zn浓度/
    (µg·L−1
    深圳湾上覆水范围0.17~0.250.12~1.141.33~3.160.16~0.32120.77~174.034.82~6.591.44~1.5465.03~77.74
    均值0.210.492.270.22132.775.321.4969.55
    孔隙水范围0.12~0.190.31~1.160.72~2.050.49~2.9788.90~364.313.16~7.881.35~2.0448.31~119.09
    均值0.140.571.051.68145.544.711.6175.91
    茅洲河上覆水范围0.17~0.260.35~1.447.51~15.090.15~5.6063.19~100.0813.43~22.351.20~1.3840.53~52.90
    均值0.210.709.431.4074.1817.271.3345.71
    孔隙水范围0.19~1.000.55~8.0210.03~190.223.03~9.0752.99~74.2517.62~127.621.34~2.7649.52~300.03
    均值0.362.0554.984.7061.1739.021.62104.70
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同地点沉积物-水界面处磷和重金属的扩散通量(单位:10-3 μg/(cm2·d))

    Tab.  4  Diffusion fluxes of phosphorus and heavy metals at sediment-water interface in different sites (unit: 10-3 μg/(cm2·d))

    地点PCdCoCuFeMoNiPbZn文献
    太湖−21~65ndndndndndndndnd[35]
    洞庭湖−3~20ndndndndndndndnd[12]
    泰国宋卡湖nd−0.015~0.004 70~0.58−0.34~0.19−94.95~2580.27nd0~0.53−0.25~0.33−7.85~2.09[36]
    珠江口ndndnd−44~24ndnd−56~18nd−3.5~11[37]
    白洋淀nd0.17nd−43~30ndnd−160~790.86~720−41~1 420[38]
    三峡水库ndndndndnd−120~300ndndnd[39]
    营口湾nd0.75−0.21−126.90−1 623.00nd−1.2218.46−0.11[40]
    深圳湾0.260.135.55−5.366.55−267.06−7.71.4−48.29本文
    茅洲河−1.220.57−7.8846.12−29.7868.73−61.441.7615.49本文
    注:表中“nd”代表没有数据。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-03-17
  • 修回日期:  2022-04-25
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