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我国近海裸胸鳝属鱼类新记录种—黏裸胸鳝(Gymnothorax mucifer)形态与分子系统学研究

张国庆 杨杰銮 李培源 梁馨艺 梁日深 林蠡 李清清

张国庆,杨杰銮,李培源,等. 我国近海裸胸鳝属鱼类新记录种—黏裸胸鳝(Gymnothorax mucifer)形态与分子系统学研究[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(9):1–10 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022124
引用本文: 张国庆,杨杰銮,李培源,等. 我国近海裸胸鳝属鱼类新记录种—黏裸胸鳝(Gymnothorax mucifer)形态与分子系统学研究[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(9):1–10 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022124
Zhang Guoqing,Yang Jieluan,Li Peiyuan, et al. The morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies of a new record Gymnothorax species in the coastal waters of China——Gymnothorax mucifer[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(9):1–10 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022124
Citation: Zhang Guoqing,Yang Jieluan,Li Peiyuan, et al. The morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies of a new record Gymnothorax species in the coastal waters of China——Gymnothorax mucifer[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(9):1–10 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022124

我国近海裸胸鳝属鱼类新记录种—黏裸胸鳝(Gymnothorax mucifer)形态与分子系统学研究

doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022124
基金项目: 广东省自然科学基金(2018A0303130104);国家自然科学基金(31802300);广东省教育厅特色创新类项目(2019KTSCX061);仲恺农业工程学院研究生科技创新项目(KJCX2021019)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张国庆(1996-),男,福建省宁德市人,主要研究方向为水产动物健康养殖。E-mail: 1289755804@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    梁日深,副教授,主要研究方向为水产动物种质资源。E-mail: cheetahliang@126.com

    林蠡,教授,主要研究方向为水产动物健康养殖。E-mail: linli@zhku.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: Q959.46+9

The morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies of a new record Gymnothorax species in the coastal waters of China——Gymnothorax mucifer

  • 摘要: 本研究于2020−2021年在福建省厦门市近海水产市场采集到4尾黏裸胸鳝样品,该样品为中国大陆近海新记录种。此前,该物种仅在澳大利亚、夏威夷等地有分布记录,并被认为与蠕纹裸胸鳝同种异名。本研究对采集的黏裸胸鳝进行详细形态特征分析,结合DNA条形码COI基因进行分子鉴定及系统进化关系分析。黏裸胸鳝的主要鉴别特征为体为黄棕色,头部前端淡紫色,身体布满细长、稀疏、弥散的树枝状不规则棕色斑纹,斑纹颜色靠近尾部加深加粗,形成网格状;臀鳍边缘白色,靠近尾部变为一列连续白色斑点;全长为体长的1.01倍,为头长的8.00~8.39倍;上颌齿每侧8~10个,下颌齿每侧14~20个,中央齿细长,均为单行;总椎骨数为117~139,平均椎骨式为6-47-130。基于COI基因分析,黏裸胸鳝与蠕纹裸胸鳝的遗传距离为0.074,大于Herbert设定的2%(0.020)作为区分不同物种最小遗传距离,表明两者应为不同的物种。形态上,两种裸胸鳝也存在差异特征,如黏裸胸鳝的斑纹较细长、稀疏,不明显,头部前端偏淡紫色,臀鳍白色边缘近尾部断裂成系列连续白色斑点;蠕纹裸胸鳝的斑纹粗大明显、颜色较深,头部前端黄白色,臀鳍白色边缘连续至尾尖。研究结果可为我国裸胸鳝属鱼类的系统分类及物种名录的修订提供分类基础。
  • 图  1  黏裸胸鳝

    全长617 mm,采自福建厦门

    Fig.  1  Gymnothorax mucifer (Snyder, 1904)

    Total length is 617 mm, collected from Xiamen City, Fujian Province

    图  2  对比种类

    a. 蠕纹裸胸鳝(福建厦门);b. 雪花斑裸胸鳝(广东深圳);c. 云纹裸胸鳝(广东汕头);d. 埃玛氏裸胸鳝(福建漳州);e. 白斑裸胸鳝(福建厦门)

    Fig.  2  Comparison species

    a. Gymnothorax kidado (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) (Xiamen City, Fujian Province); b. Gymnothorax niphostigmus (Chen, Shao & Chen, 1996) (Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province); c. Gymnothorax chilospilus (Bleeker, 1864) (Shantou City, Guangdong Province); d. Gymnothorax emmae (Prokofiev, 2010) (Zhangzhou City, Fujian Province); e. Gymnothorax prionodon (Ogilby, 1895) (Xiamen City, Fujian Province)

    图  3  黏裸胸鳝外部可量性状示意图

    AL. 全长;AK. 体长;OP. 体高;AG. 头长;MN. 头高;AC. 吻长;AE. 上颌长;BE. 下颌长;CD. 眼径;DG. 眼后头长;AF. 背鳍前距;AJ. 臀鳍前距;FK. 背鳍基长;JK. 臀鳍基长;AH. 肛前体长;IK. 肛后体长;眼间距以实际测量数据为准,未在图中标注

    Fig.  3  Schematic diagram of external measurable traits of Gymnothorax mucifer

    AL. Total length; AK. body length; OP. body depth; AG. head length; MN. head depth; AC. snout length; AE. upper jaw length; BE. lower jaw length; CD. eye diameter; DG. postorbital length; AF. predorsal length; AJ. preanal length; FK. base of the dorsal fin; JK. base of the anal fin; AH. distance from anus to snout; IK. distance from anus to cuadal tip; the interorbital width is subject to the actual measurement data and is not marked in the figure

    图  4  黏裸胸鳝牙齿结构示意图

    IM. 前颌齿;IMm. 中央齿;Mo. 上颌齿外侧;Mi. 上颌齿内侧;V. 犁骨齿;D. 下颌齿

    Fig.  4  Schematic diagram of teeth structure of Gymnothorax mucifer

    IM. intermaxillary teeth; IMm. median intermaxillary teeth; Mo. outer maxillary teeth; Mi. inner maxillary teeth; V. vomerine teeth; D. dentary teeth

    图  5  基于COI基因序列利用最大似然法构建6种裸胸鳝属鱼类分子系统进化树

    红色框中为本研究的4个样品

    Fig.  5  Molecular phylogenetic trees of 6 Gymnothorax species constructed using maximum likelihood method based on COI gene sequences

    The red box shows the four samples of this study

    图  6  基于COI基因序列利用贝叶斯法构建6种裸胸鳝属鱼类分子系统进化树

    红色框中为本研究的4个样品

    Fig.  6  Molecular phylogenetic trees of 6 Gymnothorax species constructed using Bayesian inference method based on COI gene sequences

    The red box shows the four samples of this study

    表  1  本研究分析的裸胸鳝COI基因序列信息

    Tab.  1  Information of the COI sequences of Gymnothorax species cited in this study

    物种名样品来源样品编号
    黏裸胸鳝
    Gymnothorax mucifer
    福建厦门FJXM1−FJXM4
    GenBankMH400951−MH400958
    GenBankHM422395
    雪花斑裸胸鳝
    Gymnothorax niphostigmus
    广东深圳GDSZ
    GenBankMF774814−MF774816
    蠕纹裸胸鳝
    Gymnothorax kidako
    福建厦门FJXM
    GenBankMH400959−MH400960
    GenBankMF774817
    白斑裸胸鳝
    Gymnothorax prionodon
    福建厦门FJXM
    GenBankKU885609
    GenBankMF774818
    埃玛氏裸胸鳝
    Gymnothorax emmae
    福建漳州FJDS
    广东深圳GDSZ
    GenBankMK777089
    云纹裸胸鳝
    Gymnothorax chilospilus
    广东汕头GDST1,GDST2
    GenBankJQ431797
    GenBankKU942754
    GenBankJQ431795
    GenBankMK658499
    GenBankMK657751
    GenBankKU942753
    斑马裸海鳝
    Gymnomuraena zebra
    海南三亚HNSY1,HNSY2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  黏裸胸鳝形态性状测量数据

    Tab.  2  Morphometric measurement information of Gymnothorax mucifer

    测量性状本研究模式
    标本[35]
    n=1
    文献[29]
    Gymnothorax
    mucifer
    n=18
    FJXM1
    n=1
    FJXM2
    n=1
    FJXM3
    n=1
    FJXM4
    n=1
    全长/mm537 617 515 600 715+ 246~666
    体长/mm534 610 512 596
    体高/mm42 56 45 56 22~50
    头长/mm64 74 62 75 33~76
    头高/mm39 46 43 42
    吻长/mm13 12 12 14
    上颌长/mm35 34 34 40 17~40
    下颌长/mm38 40 37 45 18~42
    眼径/mm6 7 5 7 4~6
    眼间距/mm6 11 6 9 4~8
    眼后头长/mm44 56 46 53
    背鳍前距/mm57 58 48 55 25~55
    臀鳍前距/mm255 286 245 285
    背鳍基长/mm479 552 459 550
    臀鳍基长/mm277 319 263 343
    肛前体长/mm243 275 234 270 117~277
    肛后体长/mm286 332 275 325
    背鳍鳍
    条数
    408400367293
    臀鳍鳍
    条数
    286283213263
    背前脊椎
    骨数
    784654~6
    肛门前
    脊椎骨数
    564343445351~55
    总脊椎
    骨数
    139126117137123+130~138
    前颌齿166~84565~7
    中央齿1332432~3
    犁骨齿16936105~14
    上颌齿
    外侧1
    8~1010101015~1611~18
    内侧144001~4
    下颌齿117~2014~152014~1523~2421~27
      注:1仅表示牙齿单侧数据;“−”表示无数据;“+”表示原本存在但缺失的数据,数据较715 mm和123大。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  黏裸胸鳝与相关近缘裸胸鳝形态特征比较

    Tab.  3  Comparion analysis of morphological characteristics among Gymnothorax mucifer and related Gymnothorax species

    黏裸胸鳝蠕纹裸胸鳝雪花斑裸胸鳝埃玛氏裸胸鳝云纹裸胸鳝白斑裸胸鳝
    身体颜色黄棕色黄色或棕色红棕色黄色或黄褐色黄褐色至黑褐色红褐色
    身体斑纹身体布满细小、稀疏、弥散的树枝状不规则褐色横纹身体环绕较粗大、明显的树枝状多突起不规则褐色横纹身体密布雪花状白色斑块身体分布许多曲折、间断的斜向或横向棕色条带身体无明显横带,斑纹呈斑块状或树枝状,深棕色身体布满较大、模糊不规则白斑
    头部斑纹吻部偏紫色,眼后分布密集细小网状斑纹黄色,吻部白色,眼后分布树枝状斑纹红棕色,无斑纹或稀疏白色小斑纹淡黄棕色,有不规则褐色圆形或弧形斑纹淡黄色,吻部偏白色,眼后分布不规则褐色斑纹红褐色,眼后开始出现不规则斑纹
    臀鳍边缘白色,不延续至尾端白色,延续至尾端白色,延续至尾端褐色白色红褐色,有白色斑点
    总脊柱数117133139146122138
    分布范围西太平洋:中国台湾、澳大利亚、新喀里多尼亚、夏威夷西太平洋:东海、中国台湾、日本南部、菲律宾、夏威夷西北太平洋:东海南部、中国台湾,包括澎湖群岛西太平洋:南海、越南印度−太平洋:东海南部、中国台湾、南非、阿曼苏丹国、日本南部、澳大利亚北部西太平洋:东海南部、南海、中国台湾、日本南部、澳大利亚、新西兰
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  基于COI基因序列6种裸胸鳝的种内及种间遗传距离

    Tab.  4  Intra-specific and inter-specific genetic distance among 6 Gymnothorax species for COI sequences

    种名黏裸胸鳝雪花斑裸胸鳝蠕纹裸胸鳝白斑裸胸鳝埃玛氏裸胸鳝云纹裸胸鳝
    黏裸胸鳝0.008
    雪花斑裸胸鳝0.0510.006
    蠕纹裸胸鳝0.0740.0630.007
    白斑裸胸鳝0.0950.0930.0860.019
    埃玛氏裸胸鳝0.1100.1060.0870.1110.007
    云纹裸胸鳝0.1460.1640.1570.1620.1600.007
    注:对角线数字表示种内遗传距离;对角线下表示种间遗传距离。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-10-10
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