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空心块体水沙动力及泥沙淤积特性研究

侯仲荃 石进 王宪业 郭磊城 谢卫明 徐凡 黄明毅 何青

侯仲荃,石进,王宪业,等. 空心块体水沙动力及泥沙淤积特性研究[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(5):124–133 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022101
引用本文: 侯仲荃,石进,王宪业,等. 空心块体水沙动力及泥沙淤积特性研究[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(5):124–133 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022101
Hou Zhongquan,Shi Jin,Wang Xianye, et al. Study on flow and sediment dynamics and deposition characteristics of hollow block[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(5):124–133 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022101
Citation: Hou Zhongquan,Shi Jin,Wang Xianye, et al. Study on flow and sediment dynamics and deposition characteristics of hollow block[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(5):124–133 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022101

空心块体水沙动力及泥沙淤积特性研究

doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022101
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金重点项目 (51739005);国家自然科学基金 (41876091);科技部中荷战略合作重点研发项目(2016YFE0133700);上海市科委重大研究项目(20DZ1204701)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    侯仲荃(1996-),男,江苏省连云港市人,主要从事河口海岸水沙动力及工程应用研究。E-mail:51183904048@stu.ecnu.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    何青,教授,主要从事水力学、河流动力学及河口海岸泥沙运动力学研究。E-mail:qinghe@sklec.ecnu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TV32

Study on flow and sediment dynamics and deposition characteristics of hollow block

  • 摘要: 空心块体具有良好的阻水和促淤功能,近年来被广泛用于生态修复工程。本文结合水槽试验及Flow-3D数值模拟,分析了开敞型和半封闭型空心块体的阻水效应和泥沙淤积特性。结果表明:空心块体的开孔率对内部水流流速、紊动强度起主导作用,开孔率较小的半开敞型空心块体减速、制紊效果更强;开敞型和半封闭型空心块体近底层悬沙浓度分别增大56%和75%,两者均有利于促进泥沙在块体内部淤积,近底层水流紊动越强,泥沙淤积形态差异越大;空心块体所营造的低流速、泥沙微淤、内外连通的水沙环境是大型底栖生物的生境需求,半封闭型空心块体内部的低紊动水流结构更有利于大型底栖生物的栖息、繁衍。
  • 图  1  空心块体三视图及模型图(单位: mm)

    Fig.  1  Three views and model diagram of the hollow block (unit: mm)

    图  2  水槽试验用沙累计频率分布曲线

    Fig.  2  Curve of sediment grading for the flume experiment

    图  3  空心块体水槽试验测点布置(单位:mm)

    Fig.  3  Layout of measuring points for hollow block flume experiment (unit: mm)

    图  4  空心块体数值模型及网格划分

    Fig.  4  Numerical model and grid division of hollow block

    图  5  部分点位垂线方向流速(${u} $)验证

    Fig.  5  Verification of vertical flow velocity (${u} $) at some points

    图  6  空心块体部分点位流速、紊动强度垂线分布

    Fig.  6  Vertical distribution of velocity and turbulence intensity at some points in the hollow block

    图  7  空心块体部分点位悬沙浓度垂线分布

    Fig.  7  Vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentration at some points of the hollow block

    图  8  开敞型空心块体内部泥沙淤积分布

    Fig.  8  Distribution of sediment deposition in open hollow block

    图  9  半封闭型空心块体内部泥沙淤积分布

    Fig.  9  Distribution of sediment deposition in semi-closed hollow block

    图  10  空心块体近底层水流流速、紊动强度分布(截面z=5 cm)

    Fig.  10  The distribution diagram of velocity and turbulence intensity near the bottom of the hollow block (Section z=5 cm)

    图  11  空心块体侧视面流场分布(截面y=0 cm)

    Fig.  11  The flow field distribution diagram of the hollow block in side view (Section y=0 cm)

    图  12  空心块体近底层紊动能分布(截面z=5 cm)

    Fig.  12  Distribution diagram of turbulent kinetic energy near the bottom of the hollow block (Section z=5 cm)

    表  1  空心块体透水能力参数

    Tab.  1  Hollow block water permeability parameter

    结构型式透水截面面积/cm2总透水面积S0/cm2开孔率S0/S
    x轴方向y轴方向z轴方向
    开敞型10010019679233%
    半封闭型19.619.2顶面64
    底面196
    337.614%
    注:S为包含结构体外轮廓总面积S=20$ \text{×} $20$ \text{×} $6=2 400 (cm²)。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  长江口目标生物生境需求指标[20]

    Tab.  2  Target biological habitat demand indicators for the Changjiang River Estuary[20]

    生物类别代表性物种生境需求指标
    双壳类河蚬、黑龙江河篮蛤、
    彩虹明樱蛤等
    河蚬、黑龙江河篮蛤一般栖息在底质0~5 cm深度;彩虹明樱蛤栖息深度一般在4~15 cm
    甲壳类中华绒螯蟹等中华绒螯蟹在南槽水域主要为抱卵蟹和蚤状幼体,抱卵蟹适应流速不大于1.5 m/s,
    蚤状幼体适应流速不大于0.7 m/s,幼蟹介于两者之间
    多毛类沙蚕沙蚕栖息深度在0~30 cm,基本生活在沉积底质内,
    受水流作用影响相对较小
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-12-15
  • 修回日期:  2021-10-09
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-06-15
  • 刊出日期:  2022-06-15

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