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海底沉积物的基本地声结构与地声模型

邹大鹏 伍智林 孙晗 刘伟 纪轩荣 肖体兵

邹大鹏,伍智林,孙晗,等. 海底沉积物的基本地声结构与地声模型[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(x):1–11 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022091
引用本文: 邹大鹏,伍智林,孙晗,等. 海底沉积物的基本地声结构与地声模型[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(x):1–11 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022091
Zou Dapeng,Wu Zhilin,Sun Han, et al. Basic geoacoustic structure and geoacoustic model for seafloor sediments[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(x):1–11 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022091
Citation: Zou Dapeng,Wu Zhilin,Sun Han, et al. Basic geoacoustic structure and geoacoustic model for seafloor sediments[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(x):1–11 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022091

海底沉积物的基本地声结构与地声模型

doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022091
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(41776043,41976180);声场声信息国家重点实验室开放基金(SKLA202105)。
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    邹大鹏,anthonyzou@gdut.edu.cn

    刘伟,gzlw702@163.com.

  • 中图分类号: P733.23

Basic geoacoustic structure and geoacoustic model for seafloor sediments

  • 摘要: 为准确建立海底地声模型,本文探讨地声模型的基本组成和基本结构。通过样品实验室测量,分析南海海底表层沉积物的密度、孔隙度与声速随着埋深变化关系,得出海底实际存在的低声速表面–声速缓慢变化类型,低声速表面–声速增大类型,高声速表面–声速缓慢变化类型和高声速表面–声速增大类型4种典型地声结构;对比钻探测量,分析黄海海底沉积物的密度、孔隙度与声速随埋深变化关系,得出海底地声模型分层特征与地声结构组合特征。研究表明,地声模型可以归结为4种基本地声结构的组合,通过与底层海水声速、同层内声速剖面、以及与上层海底沉积物下表面声速的比较,可以建立各种海底地声模型;基于实验室测量法建立的地声模型可以作为参考地声模型,但需要考虑实际海底温度和压力梯度以及海底沉积物的频散特性等,借助于声速比校正法和频散性理论模型进行计算及修正。
  • 图  1  海底沉积物基本分层结构

    Fig.  1  Basic layered structure of seafloor sediments

    图  2  海底沉积物样品B21的声速–孔隙度沿埋深分布图

    Fig.  2  Distribution of sound velocity and porosity along buried depth of seafloor sediment sample B21

    图  3  海底沉积物样品NH06的声速–孔隙度沿埋深分布图

    Fig.  3  Distribution of sound velocity and porosity along buried depth of seafloor sediment sample NH06

    图  4  样品HB101和HB102的地声结构(参照文献[37]修改)

    Fig.  4  The geoacoustic structure of samples HB101 and HB37 (modified according to literature [37] )

    图  5  基于EDFM模型计算海底沉积物频散特性

    Fig.  5  Calculated dispersion characteristics of seafloor sediments based on EDFM

    图  6  温度和静水压力对海底沉积物声速的影响特性

    Fig.  6  Influence characteristics of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on sound velocity of seafloor sediments

    表  1  地声模型建立方法的比较

    Tab.  1  Comparison of establishment methods of geoacoustic model

    建立方法测量频率海底埋深深度地声参数物理特性
    遥测法0.01~15 kHz1)通常几十米,可以至数千米压缩波波速及其衰减系数基于经验方程或者理论模型反演计算获得
    实验室测量法30~1 000 kHz通常为0.5~4 m,部分能够达到8米。压缩波波速及其衰减系数为主,部分获得剪切波的波速及其衰减系数基于实验室测量可以获得全部所需物理力学特性
    海底原位测量法1~260 kHz通常0.3~3 m,部分能够达到6~8米。压缩波波速及其衰减系数为主,部分获得剪切波的波速及其衰减系数需要通过同站位采集样品实验室测量获得
    钻探测量法~40 kHz2)
    通常几十米,可以至数千米压缩波波速和剪切波波速为主,可以获得衰减系数随钻直接测量或者采集样品实验室测量获得
    注:1)遥测法中的浅地层剖面仪、多波束测量、侧扫声呐等高频探测频率段未计入内;2)钻探取样样品的测量频率段未计入内,可参照样品采集的实验室测量法。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-10-20
  • 修回日期:  2022-01-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-04-18

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