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西菲律宾海盆中央裂谷周缘地质灾害特征及诱发因素

孙美静 罗伟东 陈泓君 胡小三 黄文凯 杜文波 周娇 韩艳飞 刘杰

孙美静,罗伟东,陈泓君,等. 西菲律宾海盆中央裂谷周缘地质灾害特征及诱发因素[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(4):23–35 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022080
引用本文: 孙美静,罗伟东,陈泓君,等. 西菲律宾海盆中央裂谷周缘地质灾害特征及诱发因素[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(4):23–35 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022080
Sun Meijing,Luo Weidong,Chen Hongjun, et al. Characteristics and inducing factors of geological hazards around the central rift in the West Philippine Basin[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(4):23–35 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022080
Citation: Sun Meijing,Luo Weidong,Chen Hongjun, et al. Characteristics and inducing factors of geological hazards around the central rift in the West Philippine Basin[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(4):23–35 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022080

西菲律宾海盆中央裂谷周缘地质灾害特征及诱发因素

doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022080
基金项目: 南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)重大专项(GML2019ZD0207);中国地质调查局项目(DD20191002);国家重点基金(91958212)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    孙美静(1986-),女,辽宁省瓦房店市人,高级工程师,主要从事沉积学及海洋地质方面工作。E-mail:543290006@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    罗伟东,教授级高级工程师,主要从事地形地貌学研究。E-mail: luoweidong@mail.cgs.gov.cn

    陈泓君,教授级高级工程师,主要从事海洋灾害地质学研究。E-mail: chongjun@mail.cgs.gov.cn

  • 中图分类号: P694

Characteristics and inducing factors of geological hazards around the central rift in the West Philippine Basin

  • 摘要: 基于2018年在西菲律宾海盆最新实测的高分辨率浅地层剖面和多波束测深数据,对西菲律宾海盆中部的中央裂谷及周缘区域的海洋地质灾害进行分析。在研究区总体识别出两大类灾害地质因素:(1)破坏性地质因素,主要包括滑坡、活动断层、冲刷沟谷和岩浆底辟;(2)限制性地质因素,以海山、陡坎、沟槽为主。利用浅地层剖面资料,精细刻画出灾害地质体的类型、形态、内部结构特征,并论述其分布区域、发育特点,探讨地质灾害产生的主要诱发因素及造成的不利影响。对研究区地质灾害的识别、分布范围的圈定和成因的分析,能够为海洋工程建设、装备预设和海上航行提供重要的地质依据,规避不利影响,提前做好风险预判。
  • 图  1  菲律宾海地理位置[2]

    Fig.  1  The location of the Philippine Sea[2]

    图  2  研究区地形分布(位置见图1)与浅地层剖面位置

    Fig.  2  Topography (see Fig. 1 for location) and shallow seismic profile location map of the study area

    图  3  研究区地形坡度分布

    Fig.  3  Distribution of topographic slope in the study area

    图  4  海山边缘滑塌沉积反射特征

    Fig.  4  Reflection characteristics of slump deposits on seamount margin

    图  5  陡坡区滑坡沉积反射特征

    Fig.  5  Reflection characteristics of landslide depositsin steep slope area

    图  6  活动断层在浅地层剖面上的反射特征

    a. 受岩浆底辟和海山影响;b. 相对平坦区域

    Fig.  6  Reflection characteristics of active faults on shallow seismic profile

    a. Influenced by magmatic diapir and seamount; b. relatively flat area

    图  7  岩浆底辟与海山伴生的反射特征

    Fig.  7  Reflection characteristics of magma diapir associated with seamount

    图  8  海底冲刷沟谷和陡坎的反射特征

    a. 海底冲刷沟谷;b. 断层型陡坎和陡坎后壁的冲刷水道

    Fig.  8  Reflection characteristics of submarine scour gullies and scarps

    a. Submarine scour gullies; b. fault scarps and scour channels on the back wall of scarps

    图  9  海山的反射特征

    Fig.  9  Reflection characteristics of seamounts

    图  10  海山型陡坎的反射特征

    Fig.  10  Reflection characteristics of seamount scarps

    图  11  穿过中央裂谷的地形剖面(剖面位置见图2)

    a. 穿过中央裂谷最深位置;b. 穿过中央裂谷和裂谷东部

    Fig.  11  Topographic profile through the central central rift (see Fig. 2 for the location of the profile)

    a. Through the deepest position of the central rift; b. through the central rift and the east of rift

    图  12  斜坡区发育的多种地质灾害反射特征

    Fig.  12  Reflection characteristics of various geological hazards in slope area

    表  1  研究区灾害地质因素分类

    Tab.  1  Classification of geological hazard factors in the study area

    类别 分布深度 灾害地质因素类型 发育位置 地质灾害危害性
    破坏性
    地质灾害
    海底 冲刷沟谷 发育较少,局部水动力强区域 稳定性差,直接破坏性影响,难以防治,选择规避
    海底滑坡 分布广泛,海山边缘、斜坡区、断层边界、冲刷沟谷内壁
    浅部地层 活动断层 继承深部断裂、火山活动强烈区
    岩浆底辟(也有深部) 与海山伴生
    限制性
    地质灾害
    海底 陡坎 断层边界、海山边缘坡度较大区域、陡坡区 不稳定,有产生破坏的可能性,需综合调查评价
    浅部地层 海底海山 成片分布,构造和岩浆活动强烈区
      注:斜坡区坡度一般为5°~10°,陡坡区坡度大于10°。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  灾害地质因素形态特征参数

    Tab.  2  Parameters of morphological characteristics of geological hazard factors

    类型 外形 发育或影响长度/km 厚度或高度/m 显示特征 成因
    海底滑坡 楔状 1~60 20~67 杂乱反射 构造活动、沉积作用、地形条件
    活动断层 排状 4~12 >40 错断沉积层 构造活动
    岩浆底辟 柱状 0.8~10 较深,未见底部 杂乱或空白反射 构造活动
    冲刷沟谷 V型、U型 0.3~5 下切深度10~28 冲刷海底地层,形成下切谷 沉积作用
    海山 柱状、锥状、蘑菇状 1~15 高出海底50~2 600 杂乱或空白反射 构造活动
    陡坎 阶梯状 2~13 落差5~200 强振幅边界 构造活动
    沟槽 条带状 293~938 10~40 地形低洼处 地形条件
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-07-07
  • 修回日期:  2021-09-24
  • 刊出日期:  2022-04-15

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