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波弗特海2019年夏季海冰极端低值成因研究

魏硕 张永莉 聂红涛 魏皓

魏硕,张永莉,聂红涛,等. 波弗特海2019年夏季海冰极端低值成因研究[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(5):92–101 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022077
引用本文: 魏硕,张永莉,聂红涛,等. 波弗特海2019年夏季海冰极端低值成因研究[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(5):92–101 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022077
Wei Shuo,Zhang Yongli,Nie Hongtao, et al. Cause of Beaufort Sea low ice condition in the summer of 2019[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(5):92–101 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022077
Citation: Wei Shuo,Zhang Yongli,Nie Hongtao, et al. Cause of Beaufort Sea low ice condition in the summer of 2019[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(5):92–101 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022077

波弗特海2019年夏季海冰极端低值成因研究

doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022077
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金重点项目(41630969,41941013)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    魏硕(1997-),男,河南省南阳市人,主要从事海洋海冰动力学方面研究。E-mail: weishuo@tju.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    聂红涛,副教授,主要从事海洋环境动力学方面研究。E-mail: htnie@tju.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P731.15

Cause of Beaufort Sea low ice condition in the summer of 2019

  • 摘要: 波弗特海海冰的剧烈变化对区域内生态系统以及经济活动具有重要影响。基于美国国家冰雪数据中心发布的海冰密集度数据,本文对2019年波弗特海夏季海冰面积出现极端低值的机制进行了探讨。2019年融冰季(5–9月)海冰覆盖面积为1.38×105 km2,远低于1998–2020年平均面积2.28×105 km2,统计2019年前秋(2018年10–12月)和前冬季节(2019年1–4月)海冰覆盖面积,发现其与1998–2019年多年平均结果无显著差异;先前季节的海冰冰况不是造成极端低值事件的主要原因。综合海冰漂移场、海冰厚度、10 m风场以及海表面净热通量数据发现,2019年5月份海冰面积减小2.33×105 km2,是1998年以来5月海冰损失量最大的年份,占融冰季节海冰面积减小量的62%。与1998年、2008年、2012年以及2016年波弗特海夏季发生海冰覆盖面积极端低值现象的机制不同,不断减小的海冰厚度以及2019年5月异常强的风场,促使海冰快速向外输出,波弗特海南部5月16日就形成开阔水域;伴随着异常高的海表面净热通量使得海冰更多地融化,造成了2019年夏季海冰的异常现象。随着海冰厚度的不断变薄,海冰对风场的响应越来越强,海冰消退时间不断提前,波弗特海夏季海冰的极端低值现象可能更为频繁地出现。
  • 图  1  研究区域

    红色粗实线为波弗特海范围(125º~150ºW, 75ºN以南),彩色背景线为等深线

    Fig.  1  Study area

    The bold solid red line represents the cover of Beaufort Sea (125º−150ºW and south of 75ºN),the colored background lines are isobath lines

    图  2  1979–2020年波弗特海融冰季海冰覆盖面积年际变化

    Fig.  2  Inter-annual variation of sea ice cover in the melt season of Beaufort Sea during 1979–2020

    图  3  1998–2019年多年平均以及2019年融冰季海冰密集度

    a–e为1998–2019年平均;f–j为2019年;k–o为2019年与1998–2019年平均之间的差异;黑色粗实线为图1b中波弗特海区域

    Fig.  3  Sea ice concentration in the melt season of multi-year average of 1998–2019 and 2019

    a–e are the average of 1998–2019; f–j are the 2019, and k–o are the difference between 2019 and 1998–2019; the bold black line represents the cover of Beaufort Sea in Fig. 1b

    图  4  1998–2019年多年平均以及2019年前秋、前冬、融冰季海冰密集度

    a–c为1998–2019年平均;d–f为2019年平均;g–i为2019年与1998–2019年平均之间的差异;黑色粗实线为图1b中波弗特海区域

    Fig.  4  Sea ice concentration in the preceding fall, preceding winter, melt season of multi-year average of 1998–2019 and 2019

    a–c are the average of 1998–2019; d–f are the 2019, and g–i are the difference of 2019 and 1998–2019; the bold black line represents the cover of Beaufort Sea in Fig. 1b

    图  5  1998–2019年前秋(a)、前冬(b)以及融冰季节(c)内海冰面积总变化量(ΔSIAtotal)、动力输出贡献(ΔSIAdynamic)和热力融化贡献(ΔSIAthermal

    Fig.  5  Total variation (ΔSIAtotal), dynamic contribution (ΔSIAdynamic), and thermal contribution (ΔSIAthermal) of sea ice area in the preceding fall (a), preceding winter (b), melt season (c) of 1998–2019

    图  6  1998–2019年5月海冰面积收支(a)以及2019年5月海冰面积总变化量(ΔSIAtotal)(b)、动力输出贡献(ΔSIAdynamic)(c)、热力融化贡献(ΔSIAthermal)(d)日均累积量

    Fig.  6  Sea ice area budget in the May of 1998–2019 (a) and cumulative of the total variation of sea ice area (ΔSIAtotal) (b), dynamic contribution (ΔSIAdynamic) (c), and thermal contribution (ΔSIAthermal) (d) in May of 2019

    图  7  PIOMAS模拟的1–4月海冰平均厚度

    黑色粗实线为图1b中波弗特海区域

    Fig.  7  Average sea ice thickness from January to April simulated by PIOMAS

    The bold black line represents the cover of Beaufort Sea in Fig. 1b

    图  8  波弗特海2019年5月10 m风场、逐日海冰面积减少量(a)、海表面净热通量(b)、短波辐射吸收量(c)和1998–2019年5月累积短波辐射和长波辐射年际变化(d)

    Fig.  8  10 m wind field and daily decrease of sea ice area (a), net sea surface heat flux (b), and solar absorption (c) over the Beaufort Sea in May of 2019, and inter-annual variation of cumulative solar radiation and thermal radiation in May during 1998–2019 (d)

    图  9  5月海冰漂移场

    黑色箭头为1998–2019年平均,红色箭头为2019年,底色为2019年与多年平均之间的差异;黑色粗实线为图1b中波弗特海区域

    Fig.  9  The spatial distribution of sea ice drift in May

    The black arrows represent the average for 1998–2019, the red represent the 2019, and the color shading shows the difference between 2019 and 1998–2019; the bold black line represents the cover of Beaufort Sea in Fig. 1b

    表  1  2019年前秋、前冬以及融冰季节北边界、西边界面积通量及计算误差(括号内为误差)

    Tab.  1  Ice transport and the uncertainty across the northern and western gates of 2019 in the preceding fall, preceding winter and melt season (the uncertainty is in brackets)

    北边界西边界
    前秋面积/(104 km212.69(0.72)–24.40(0.95)
    前冬面积/(104 km25.41(0.68)–27.25(0.82)
    融冰季面积/(104 km214.63(0.76)–14.07(1.08)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2019年5月海冰面积收支

    Tab.  2  Sea ice area budget in May of 2019

    1–31日1–15日16–31日
    总量/(104 km2–23.31(–7.03)–8.01(–2.31)–15.30(–4.72)
    动力贡献/(104 km2–7.95(–2.79)–4.91(–1.01)–3.03(–1.78)
    热力贡献/(104 km2–15.36(–4.23)–3.10(–1.29)–12.27(–2.94)
    注:括号内为1998–2019年平均。
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-08-10
  • 修回日期:  2021-11-11
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-24
  • 刊出日期:  2022-06-15

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