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基于高频地波雷达的多时间尺度海流研究

张景思 吴伦宇 葛建忠 丁平兴

张景思,吴伦宇,葛建忠,等. 基于高频地波雷达的多时间尺度海流研究[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(6):1–12 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022039
引用本文: 张景思,吴伦宇,葛建忠,等. 基于高频地波雷达的多时间尺度海流研究[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(6):1–12 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022039
Zhang Jingsi,Wu Lunyu,Ge Jianzhong, et al. Study of ocean current at multiple time scales based on HF radar[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(6):1–12 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022039
Citation: Zhang Jingsi,Wu Lunyu,Ge Jianzhong, et al. Study of ocean current at multiple time scales based on HF radar[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(6):1–12 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022039

基于高频地波雷达的多时间尺度海流研究

doi: 10.12284/hyxb2022039
基金项目: 重点研发计划项目(2018YFC1407402);国家自然科学基金(41776104)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张景思(1996-),男,浙江省宁海县人,主要从事海洋数据分析、同化研究。E-mail:51193904054@stu.ecnu.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    吴伦宇,(1982-),男,山东省莱州市人,副研究员,主要从事海洋数值模拟研究。E-mail:wuly@nmefc.cn

  • 中图分类号: P731.21

Study of ocean current at multiple time scales based on HF radar

  • 摘要: 近海海流受多种动力过程及岸线岛屿的作用呈现空间和时间尺度上的复杂变化,而地波雷达由于其探测面积广、时间分辨率高的特点成为研究这些变化的有效手段。本文利用舟山海域多年高频地波雷达资料,通过潮流调和分析、低通滤波和相关性分析对该海域海流潮周期、极端事件、季节、年际尺度的动力过程进行了解译。研究表明,舟山海域属于正规半日潮,潮流运动形式以顺时针旋转流为主,流速分布在空间上为东北方向较大,往西南方向逐渐减小,并在近岸处得到增强。余流的年际变化并不显著,但存在着明显的季节变化特征,例如冬季为南向流,空间分布上近岸较外海大,而夏季与之反向,流速较强,空间分布较为均匀。进一步分析了风与余流之间的相关性,在大风期间,风与余流的速度相关系数在0.48~0.90之间,方向相关系数在0.55~0.68之间。极端事件发生时,速度、方向的相关系数分别高达0.92与0.91。总体而言,通过分析高频地波雷达数据能够较好地反映舟山海域海流的时空特征,为海洋灾害监测和污染物、藻华的输运研究提供依据。
  • 图  1  研究区域及舟山海域水深分布(a)和两个雷达观测站位置(b)

    图a中红色矩形所选位置为地波雷达主要覆盖区;b图中朱家尖、嵊山分别为两个雷达观测站位置,灰色矩形块为雷达实际观测点位,站位A为雷达观测核心区内一点

    Fig.  1  The study area and the depth distribution of water in Zhoushan sea area (a) and two radar stations (b)

    The selected position of the red rectangle in the fig.a is the main coverage area of the ground wave radar; in b, Zhujiajian and Shenshan are two radar stations, the gray blocks are the actual observation point of radar, station A is a point in the core area of radar observation

    图  2  2017—2019年各月份数据丰度百分比

    Fig.  2  Percentage of data available for each month of 2017, 2018 and 2019

    图  3  质量控制前后数据丰度对比

    a、b分别为质量控制前后空间丰度,其中方块为雷达观测点位,颜色表示数据的丰度,黑色矩形位置为数据丰度大于60%的点位;c为质量控制前后每日的数据丰度对比,红色为控制前,蓝色为控制后

    Fig.  3  Percentage of data available before and after quality control

    a and b are the percentage of data available in space before and after quality control, the blocks are the radar observation point, the color represents the percentage of the data available, the black rectangular positions are the point where the data percentage are greater than 60%; c is percentage of data available per day before and after quality control, the red bars are before controll and the blue bars are after controll

    图  4  M2、S2潮流椭圆(a)和 K1、O1潮流椭圆(b)

    Fig.  4  M2, S2 tidal current ellipses (a); K1, O1 tidal current ellipses (b)

    图  5  F值(a)、K值(b)和Vmax值(c)分布

    Fig.  5  F-value (a), K-value (b), and Vmax-value (b) distribution

    图  6  2017年1月流速矢量时间序列(a)、流速时间序列(b)和流向时间序列(c)

    Fig.  6  Time series of tidal current vector (a), time series of tidal current velocity (b), and time series of tidal current direction (c) in January,2017

    图  7  各月平均余流与风场

    蓝色箭头为风矢量,黑色箭头为余流;图中第一列到第三列分别为2017年、2018年和2019年;图a~c为冬季;图d~f为春季;图g~i为夏季;图j~l为秋季

    Fig.  7  Average residual currents and wind fields for each month

    The blue arrows are the wind vector and the black arrows are the residual current; the first to third columns in the figure are 2017, 2018 and 2019 respectively; winter: a-c; spring: d-f; summer: g-i; autumn: j-l

    图  8  2017年与2019年秋季余流与风之间时间序列对比与相关系数

    绿线为余流,黑线为风,红色虚线为相关系数,T1T4分别为2017年9月14—18日与21—25日,T5T8分别为2019年9月6—10日与14—24日

    Fig.  8  Time series comparison and correlation between the residual current and the wind in the autumn of 2017 and 2019

    The green line is the residual current, the black line is the wind, the red line is correlation,T1-T4 are September 14-18, 2017 and 21-25, respectively; T5-T8 are September 6−10 and 14−24, 2019 respectively

    图  9  台风靠近与离开时刻余流场与风场

    左上角小图中黑线为台风路径,红点为当前时刻台风位置,绿色矩形为研究区域;黑色箭头为余流,蓝色为风;图a时刻为2017年7月15日0时,图b时刻为2017年7月16日0时

    Fig.  9  The residual current and wind fields of the moment when the typhoon approach and leave

    The black line in the upper left corner is the typhoon track, the red dot is the typhoon position at the current moment, the green rectangle is the study area, the black arrow is the residual current, and the blue is wind; a is at 0:00 on July 15, 2017 and b is at 0:00 on July 16, 2017

    图  10  2017年9月风速、余流流速、实际流速对比(a)和风向、余流流向、实际流向对比(b)

    红线为雷达观测数据、黑线为风、绿色为余流,绿色背景部分为台风作用最强烈期间

    Fig.  10  Comparison of wind speed, residual current velocity, actual current velocity (a) and comparison of wind direction, residual current direction, actual direction (b) in September 2017

    The red line is the rodar observation data, the black line is wind, the green line is the residual current, and the green background part is the period during the typhoon is most powerful

    表  1  大风时期风与余流相关性统计

    Tab.  1  Correlation statistics between wind and residual currents during strong wind

    时间平均风向/(°)平均流向/(°)相关系数平均风速/m·s−1平均流速/m·s−1相关系数
    T1T2204.7253.50.6214.10.390.90
    T3T4236.6317.0−0.027.00.120.55
    T5T6167.4189.40.689.60.300.48
    T7T8196.2244.00.5510.80.270.78
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