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涠洲岛西南部海域造礁石珊瑚的群落结构特征分析

梁文 周浩郎 王欣 黄荣永 余克服

梁文,周浩郎,王欣,等. 涠洲岛西南部海域造礁石珊瑚的群落结构特征分析[J]. 海洋学报,2021,43(11):1–13 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2021150
引用本文: 梁文,周浩郎,王欣,等. 涠洲岛西南部海域造礁石珊瑚的群落结构特征分析[J]. 海洋学报,2021,43(11):1–13 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2021150
Liang Wen,Zhou Haolang,Wang Xin, et al. Studies on scleractinian coral community structure characteristics in the southwest seawaters of the Weizhou Island[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2021, 43(11):1–13 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2021150
Citation: Liang Wen,Zhou Haolang,Wang Xin, et al. Studies on scleractinian coral community structure characteristics in the southwest seawaters of the Weizhou Island[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2021, 43(11):1–13 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2021150

涠洲岛西南部海域造礁石珊瑚的群落结构特征分析

doi: 10.12284/hyxb2021150
基金项目: 广西重点研发计划项目(桂科AB19245045);国家自然科学基金项目(41766007)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    梁文(1967—),男,广西壮族自治区北海市人,副研究员,从事海洋地质、热带典型生态系统研究。E-mail:gx.lw@163.com

    通讯作者:

    周浩郎(1962—),男,研究员,主要从事海洋生物和海洋生物多样性研究。E-mail:zhouhaolang@sina.com

  • 中图分类号: P735

Studies on scleractinian coral community structure characteristics in the southwest seawaters of the Weizhou Island

  • 摘要: 采用2019年5月14−22日开展的断面法调查数据,分析了涠洲岛西南部海域的造礁石珊瑚群落结构特征。结果表明:涠洲岛西南部海域造礁石珊瑚共有9科38种,优势种为滨珊瑚(Porites sp.)、秘密角蜂巢珊瑚(Favites abdita)、斯氏角孔珊瑚(Goniopora stutchburyi)等团块状珊瑚。活造礁石珊瑚覆盖率为5.20%~31.20%,平均值为16.66%,远离海岸或靠近海岸但水较深的站位覆盖率较高。石珊瑚补充量较低、病害少、死亡率较低。造礁石珊瑚群落的物种多样性、优势度、均匀度互相呈显著正相关关系(p<0.05)。靠近岩壁的站位,水较深且船舶通行和游客潜水等影响较少,活造礁石珊瑚覆盖率和多样性程度均较高。受侵蚀海岸悬浮泥沙和潜水旅游影响较大的沙质岸段站位,活造礁石珊瑚覆盖率最低、优势种的优势度最高、多样性程度相对较低。人为活动、西南季风、风暴潮、海岸侵蚀悬沙、极端气候是影响涠洲岛西南部海域造礁石珊瑚礁生态系统的主要因素。
  • 图  1  涠洲岛西南部活造礁石珊瑚调查站位

    Fig.  1  Survey stations of scleractinian coral in the southwest seawaters of the Weizhou Island

    图  2  涠洲岛西南部海域调查区域5个形态类群造礁石珊瑚种类数量分布

    Fig.  2  Distributions of the 5 types characteristics scleractinian corals in the southwest seawaters of the Weizhou Island

    图  3  涠洲岛西南部海域活造礁石珊瑚覆盖率分布状况

    Fig.  3  Distributions of average coverage of scleractinian corals in the southwest seawaters of the Weizhou Island

    图  4  涠洲岛西南部海域各站位造礁石珊瑚补充量

    Fig.  4  Coral complement of scleractinian corals at the survey stations in the southwest seawaters of the Weizhou Island

    图  5  涠洲岛西南部海域造礁石珊瑚调查站位物种多样性指数优势度指数和均匀度指数的变化

    Fig.  5  Change of Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson’s diversity index and Pielon sclerotiniam corals at the survey stations in the southwest seawaters of the Weizhou Island

    表  1  涠洲岛西南部海域造礁石珊瑚群落区造礁石珊瑚名录

    Tab.  1  List of scleractinian coral species and the types in the southwest seawaters of the Weizhou Island

    造礁石珊瑚本研究形态类型
    鹿角珊瑚科Acroporidae
    霜鹿角珊瑚Acropora pruinosa+分枝状
    膨胀蔷薇珊瑚Montipora turgescens+皮壳状
    菌珊瑚科Agariciidae
    叶形牡丹珊瑚Pavona frondifera+叶片状
    十字牡丹珊瑚Pavona decussata+叶片状
    滨珊瑚科Poritidae
    橙黄滨珊瑚Porites lutea+团块状
    团块滨珊瑚Porites lobata+团块状
    滨珊瑚Porites sp.+团块状
    斯氏角孔珊瑚Goniopora stutchburyi+团块状
    二异角孔珊瑚Goniopora duofasciata+团块状
    柱角孔珊瑚Goniopora columna+团块状
    枇杷珊瑚科Oculinidae
    稀杯盔形珊瑚Galaxea astreata+团块状
    裸肋珊瑚科Merulinidae
    阔裸肋珊瑚Merulina ampliata+皮壳状
    腐蚀刺柄珊瑚Hydnophora exesa+皮壳状
    蜂巢珊瑚科Faviidae
    黄廯蜂巢珊瑚Favia favus+团块状
    标准蜂巢珊瑚Favia speciosa+团块状
    翘齿蜂巢珊瑚Favia matthaii+团块状
    圆突蜂巢珊瑚Favia veroni+团块状
    带刺蜂巢珊瑚Favia stelligera+团块状
    蜂巢珊瑚Favia sp.+团块状
    秘密角蜂巢珊瑚Favites abdita+团块状
    中国角蜂巢珊瑚Favites chinensis+团块状
    五边角蜂巢珊瑚Favites pentagona+团块状
    多弯角蜂巢珊瑚Favites stylifera+团块状
    板叶角蜂巢珊瑚Favites complanata+团块状
    海孔角蜂巢珊瑚Favites halicora+团块状
    角蜂巢珊瑚Favites sp.+团块状
    多孔同星珊瑚Plesiastrea versipora+团块状
    同星珊瑚Plesiastrea sp.+团块状
    梳状菊花珊瑚Goniastrea pectinata+团块状
    网状菊花珊瑚Goniastrea retiformis团块状
    精巧扁脑珊瑚Platygyra daedalea+团块状
    交替扁脑珊瑚Platygyra crosslandi+团块状
    扁脑珊瑚Platygyra sp.+团块状
    紫小星珊瑚Leptastrea purpurea+团块状
    褶叶珊瑚科Mussidae
    棘星珊瑚Acanthastrea echinata+团块状
    伞房叶状珊瑚Lobophyllia corymbosa+团块状
    叶状珊瑚Lobophyllia sp.+团块状
    梳状珊瑚科Pectiniidae
    粗糙刺叶珊瑚Echinophyllia aspera+板状
    木珊瑚科Dendrophyllidae
    盾形陀螺珊瑚Turbinaria peltata+板状
      注:“+”表示调查到该种,“−”表示该种没有发现。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  涠洲岛西南部海域造礁石珊瑚群落优势种及其优势度

    Tab.  2  The dominant species and its dominance of scleractinian coral species in the southwest seawaters of the Weizhou Island

    站位优势种优势度/%
    1#-2滨珊瑚Porites sp.36.08
    秘密角蜂巢珊瑚Favites abdita24.74
    斯氏角孔珊瑚Goniopora stutchburyi13.40
    3#-2斯氏角孔珊瑚Goniopora stutchburyi31.43
    叶状珊瑚Lobophyllia sp.26.67
    翘齿蜂巢珊瑚Favia matthaii11.43
    4#-2交替扁脑珊瑚Platygyra crosslandi21.79
    秘密角蜂巢珊瑚Favites abdita21.15
    滨珊瑚Porites sp.15.38
    多弯角蜂巢珊瑚Favites stylifera14.10
    5#-2斯氏角孔珊瑚Goniopora stutchburyi63.41
    叶状珊瑚Lobophyllia sp.9.76
    秘密角蜂巢珊瑚Favites abdita8.54
    7#-2斯氏角孔珊瑚Goniopora stutchburyi48.15
    叶状珊瑚Lobophyllia sp.24.07
    二异角孔珊瑚Goniopora duofasciata12.96
    秘密角蜂巢珊瑚Favites abdita12.96
    9#-2滨珊瑚Porites sp.76.92
    11#-2滨珊瑚Porites sp.53.01
    秘密角蜂巢珊瑚Favites abdita15.66
    标准蜂巢珊瑚Favia speciosa10.84
    13#-2滨珊瑚Porites sp.54.47
    秘密角蜂巢珊瑚Favites abdita17.89
    多孔同星珊瑚Plesiastrea versipora13.01
    15#-2秘密角蜂巢珊瑚Favites abdita32.35
    滨珊瑚Porites sp.29.41
    17#-2滨珊瑚Porites sp.35.00
    秘密角蜂巢珊瑚Favites abdita22.50
    标准蜂巢珊瑚Favia speciosa12.50
    19#-2滨珊瑚Porites sp.45.00
    秘密角蜂巢珊瑚Favites abdita19.00
    21#-2滨珊瑚Porites sp.32.61
    紫小星珊瑚Leptastrea purpurea19.57
    秘密角蜂巢珊瑚Favites abdita15.22
    多弯角蜂巢珊瑚Favites stylifera15.22
    23#-2滨珊瑚Porites sp.19.55
    盾形陀螺珊瑚Turbinaria peltata14.77
    秘密角蜂巢珊瑚Favites abdita12.50
    二异角孔珊瑚Goniopora duofasciata10.23
    角蜂巢珊瑚Favites sp.10.23
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  涠洲岛西南部海域调查站位不同形态类群比例(%)

    Tab.  3  Proportion (%) of different types of groups at the survey stations in the southwest seawaters of the Weizhou Island

    站位编号团块状板状皮壳状叶片状分枝状
    1#-297.941.0301.030
    3#-295.2404.7600
    4#-295.511.283.2100
    5#-297.532.47000
    7#-21000000
    9#-296.15003.850
    11#-291.572.411.211.213.61
    13#-294.313.2502.440
    15#-291.181.471.474.411.47
    17#-292.507.50000
    19#-2882622
    21#-293.4806.5200
    23#-276.1414.777.9601.14
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  涠洲岛西南部海域活造礁石珊瑚死亡率、病害状况

    Tab.  4  The mortality and disease of the scleractinian corals in the southwest seawaters of the Weizhou Island

    站位编号病害/%1 a内死亡率/%1 a以上死亡率/%水深/m
    1#-20006.81
    3#-20005.94
    4#-200.2004.36
    5#-200.4002.16
    7#-200.4004.79
    9#-20011.04
    11#-200.4012.81
    13#-2000.401.71
    15#-2000.205.89
    17#-20.20(白化)0.2002.28
    19#-200.4002.50
    21#-200.4103.82
    23#-200.210.643.24
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  涠洲岛西南部海域造礁石珊瑚补充量种类

    Tab.  5  The species of Coral complement of scleractinian corals in the southwest seawaters of the Weizhou Island

    种类(属)调查样方 珊瑚幼体
    出现数量出现频次/% 个体数量个体密度/(ind.·m−2
    角孔珊瑚218.24311.95
    角蜂巢珊瑚124.71140.88
    滨珊瑚41.5750.31
    陀螺珊瑚10.3910.06
    牡丹珊瑚10.3910.06
    扁脑珊瑚20.7820.13
    刺孔珊瑚10.3910.06
    蜂巢珊瑚10.3910.06
    合计4316.86563.51
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  涠洲岛西南部海域各站位造礁石珊瑚物种多样性指数

    Tab.  6  The Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson's diversity index and Pielou of the scleractinian corals at the survey stations in the southwest seawaters of the Weizhou Island

    站位物种多样性指数优势度指数均匀度指数
    1#-21.87960.78160.4109
    3#-21.90720.80200.4098
    4#-22.13680.85130.4231
    5#-21.39040.57560.3155
    7#-21.29830.67630.3255
    9#-20.84700.39350.2600
    11#-21.57010.67440.3553
    13#-21.42570.64920.2963
    15#-21.95130.79020.4624
    17#-21.83550.79380.4976
    19#-21.86310.74460.4046
    21#-21.79150.80060.4679
    23#-22.22700.84870.4974
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-06-22
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