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中国海洋生态系统累积影响的空间量化评估

江曲图 丁洁琼 叶观琼 曾江宁

江曲图,丁洁琼,叶观琼,等. 中国海洋生态系统累积影响的空间量化评估[J]. 海洋学报,2021,43(9):146–156 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2021058
引用本文: 江曲图,丁洁琼,叶观琼,等. 中国海洋生态系统累积影响的空间量化评估[J]. 海洋学报,2021,43(9):146–156 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2021058
Jiang Qutu,Ding Jieqiong,Ye Guanqiong, et al. Spatial assessment of cumulative impact on China’s marine ecosystems[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2021, 43(9):146–156 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2021058
Citation: Jiang Qutu,Ding Jieqiong,Ye Guanqiong, et al. Spatial assessment of cumulative impact on China’s marine ecosystems[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2021, 43(9):146–156 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2021058

中国海洋生态系统累积影响的空间量化评估

doi: 10.12284/hyxb2021058
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(41606124);浙江省科技厅资助项目(2017F30012)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    江曲图(1991—),男,湖北省崇阳市人,研究方向为海洋生态健康、时空分析。E-mail:jiangqutu@zju.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    叶观琼(1984—),女,浙江省绍兴市人,副教授,研究方向为海岸带综合管理、海洋生态文明。E-mail:gqy@zju.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: Q178.53

Spatial assessment of cumulative impact on China’s marine ecosystems

  • 摘要: 海洋生态系统累积影响评估是科学认知该系统对外界扰动响应与反馈规律的生态学方法。为了探索和揭示其中的内在规律,本文以我国部分近陆海域为研究范围,选取海洋渔业、海洋航运、陆源及近海、气候变化4种类型下的16个生态压力因子,通过空间量化和标准化,在1 km×1 km空间格栅尺度下,针对研究范围内9种海洋生境类型,进行了累积暴露度和累积影响度评估。结果显示:研究海域累积暴露度总体呈现近岸高于远海,并向外海一侧逐步递减;陆源污染、渔业捕捞对近岸海域生态系统影响度较大,总体来看气候变化影响度最大;我国近海分别有22.8%和7.6%的海域受影响程度较高和极高,其中长三角海域受人类活动影响度最高。
  • 图  1  中国部分近陆海域人类活动累积影响研究区域

    Fig.  1  Study on the cumulative impact of human activities in some coastal seas of China

    图  2  累积影响空间化评估示意图

    Fig.  2  The schematic diagram of spatial assessment of cumulative impact

    图  3  16个生态压力因子未转换前数值分布频率直方图

    Fig.  3  Frequency histogram of the numerical distribution of 16 pressure factors before conversion

    图  4  典型海洋生态系统空间分布

    Fig.  4  Spatial distribution of typical marine ecosystems

    图  5  我国近海人类活动压力累积暴露度(a)、渤海海域(b)、长三角海域(c)、珠三角海域(d)的局部放大图以及其压力值频次分布(e−g)

    Fig.  5  Accumulated exposure to pressure from human activities in the coastal seas of China (a), and the Bohai Sea (b), the Changjiang River Delta (c), a partial enlarged view of the Zhujiang River Delta (d), and represent the frequency distribution of pressure values(e−g), respectively

    图  6  我国近海人类活动压力累积影响因子数量(a)及其对总累积暴露度的贡献百分比(b−d)

    Fig.  6  The cumulative number of factors affecting the pressure of human activities in the coastal seas of China (a) and their contribution to the total cumulative exposure (b−d)

    图  7  人类活动压力对我国近海海洋生态系统的累积影响度(a)和4种特定人类活动压力因子(拖网捕捞、海上航运、海洋热浪及营养盐污染)的横断面图(b)

    散点为各网格点得分,各趋势线为局部加权回归拟合线

    Fig.  7  The cumulative impact of human activity pressure on China’s coastal marine ecosystems (a), and a cross-sectional view of four specific human activity pressure factors (trawling fishing, maritime navigation, ocean heat waves, and nutrient pollution) (b)

    The point is the score of each grid point, and each trend line is the locally weighted regression fitting line

    图  8  海洋渔业(压力因子数目为6)、海洋航运(压力因子数目为2)、陆源及近海(压力因子数目为5)及气候变化(压力因子数目为3)累积影响度空间分布

    Fig.  8  Spatial distribution of cumulative influence of marine fisheries (number of pressure factors is 6), ocean shipping (number of pressure factors is 2), land-source and offshore (number of pressure factors is 5), and climate change (number of pressure factors is 3)

    表  1  生态压力因子(N=16)描述及数据来源

    Tab.  1  Description of each stress factor (N=16) and data source

    类别压力因子空间时间压力量化来源
    海洋渔业S1拖网0.01°×0.01°2015年基于每日各栅格点捕捞努力量计算不同类型捕捞方式的年均值(单位:h/km2文献[15]
    S2围网0.01°×0.01°2015年基于每日各栅格点捕捞努力量计算不同类型捕捞方式的年均值(单位:h/km2文献[15]
    S3鱿钓0.01°×0.01°2015年基于每日各栅格点捕捞努力量计算不同类型捕捞方式的年均值(单位:h/km2文献[15]
    S4漂流延绳钓0.01°×0.01°2015年基于每日各栅格点捕捞努力量计算不同类型捕捞方式的年均值(单位:h/km2文献[15]
    S5固定式渔具0.01°×0.01°2015年基于每日各栅格点捕捞努力量计算不同类型捕捞方式的年均值(单位:h/km2文献[15]
    S6其他渔具0.01°×0.01°2015年基于每日各栅格点捕捞努力量计算不同类型捕捞方式的年均值(单位:h/km2文献[15]
    海洋航运S7航运0.1°×0.1°2013年由航运轨迹密度确定(单位:轨迹/网格)文献[5]
    S8港口0.01°×0.01°基于距港口远近,取倒数(单位:km)文献[16]
    陆源及近海S9人口密度1 km×1 km2015年以离岸1 km海域网格点为中心,计算其10 km半径缓冲区内人口数量(单位:人/km2文献[17]
    S10营养盐污染站点监测2015年监测点数据来源于生态环境部(单位:mg/L)文献[18]
    S11赤潮位置点2005−2015年基于近10年间赤潮累积发生位置点,做核密度估计(无量纲)文献[19]
    S12石油类污染站点监测2015年监测点数据来源于生态环境部(单位:mg/L)文献[20]
    S13有机污染1 km×1 km2013年主要基于农药、杀虫剂用量模拟得到(单位:t)文献[5]
    气候变化S14海表热浪0.25°×0.25°2015年基于最优插值海表温度产品OISST获得(单位:℃)文献[21]
    S15海洋酸化1°×1°2013年基于月均文石饱和度状况获得(无量纲)文献[5]
    S16海平面上升0.25°×0.25°1992−2012年基于AVISO卫星高度计产品获得(单位:mm)文献[22]
      注: −代表无年份区别。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  海洋生境(N=9)分类及数据来源

    Tab.  2  Classification and source of various marine habitats (N=9)

    序号生境类型描述来源
    H1海岸根据大陆地边界向外延伸1 km的区域文献[23]
    H2潮滩湿地根据卫星遥感影像反演的2014−2016年的均值分布区域文献[24]
    H3红树林2015年我国沿海红树林分布文献[25]
    H4盐沼地根据全球盐沼地分布数据截取我国近岸盐沼地分布区域文献[26]
    H5海草床根据全球盐沼地分布数据截取我国近岸海草床分布区域文献[26]
    H6珊瑚礁根据全球盐沼地分布数据截取我国近岸珊瑚礁分布区域文献[26]
    H7近岸浅水及底栖生境水深小于20 m的区域,以浅水和底栖环境为主文献[26]
    H8近海表层生境水深大于20 m的表层水环境文献[27]
    H9近海深层生境水深大于200 m的深层水环境文献[27]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同生境对应不同压力因子的脆弱性矩阵

    Tab.  3  Vulnerability matrix corresponding to different stress factors in different habitats

    H1H2H3H4H5H6H7H8H9
    S10.21.3010.21.22.12.10.8
    S20000.400.70.62.20.6
    S30000.400.70.62.20.6
    S40.1000.500.5032.2
    S50.91.90.911.11.62.11.60
    S60.70.60.70.80.81.21.61.20
    S71.90.321.41.91.50.31.90
    S81221.41.91.521.90
    S92.72.83.31.62.52.320.90
    S100.41.61.81.92.11.821.20
    S110.41.61.81.92.11.821.20
    S120.12.11.41.711.21.21.91.6
    S130.12.11.41.711.21.21.91.6
    S141.42.82.41.42.12.80.53.32.3
    S1500.91.21.31.41.10.11.80
    S161.92.533.12.62.42.200
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-10-20
  • 修回日期:  2021-01-04
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-08-04
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-06

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