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荣成马山里海域海草床分布现状及其生态特征

邓筱凡 张宏瑜 吴忠迅 李文涛 张沛东

邓筱凡,张宏瑜,吴忠迅,等. 荣成马山里海域海草床分布现状及其生态特征[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(x):1–13 doi: 12.12284/hyxb2022160
引用本文: 邓筱凡,张宏瑜,吴忠迅,等. 荣成马山里海域海草床分布现状及其生态特征[J]. 海洋学报,2022,44(x):1–13 doi: 12.12284/hyxb2022160
Deng Xiaofan,Zhang Hongyu,Wu Zhongxun, et al. Distribution and ecological characteristics of seagrass beds in Rongcheng Mashanli Sea Area[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(x):1–13 doi: 12.12284/hyxb2022160
Citation: Deng Xiaofan,Zhang Hongyu,Wu Zhongxun, et al. Distribution and ecological characteristics of seagrass beds in Rongcheng Mashanli Sea Area[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2022, 44(x):1–13 doi: 12.12284/hyxb2022160

荣成马山里海域海草床分布现状及其生态特征

doi: 12.12284/hyxb2022160
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划(2019YFD0901302);国家自然科学基金(42076100)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    邓筱凡(1997—),女,山东省威海市人,主要从事海草床修复与保护研究。E-mail:17806265822@163.com

    通讯作者:

    张沛东,男,教授,主要从事海草床修复与保护研究。E-mail:zhangpdsg@ouc.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: Q948.8

Distribution and ecological characteristics of seagrass beds in Rongcheng Mashanli Sea Area

  • 摘要: 海草床是滨海三大典型生态系统之一,具有极其重要的环境改善、资源养护和减灾防灾等生态功能,亦是全球重要的碳库。2016年8月,通过对荣成马山里海域的现场调查,发现面积为58.26 hm2的海草床,其海草的种类为红纤维虾形草(Phyllospadix iwatensis)和丛生鳗草(Zostera caespitosa)。红纤维虾形草分布面积为54.50 hm2,占该海域海草床总面积的93.5%,分为北部和南部2个带状区域,平均茎枝密度为(368.0±18.2)shoots/m2,平均生物量(干重,下同)为(297.0±41.5)g/m2。丛生鳗草分布面积为3.76 hm2,占海草床总面积的6.5%,呈现斑块状分布,与红纤维虾形草交错而生,平均茎枝密度为(691.2±17.1)shoots/m2,平均生物量为(534.0±70.7)g/m2。马山里海域海草床平均水深2.8 m,以岩礁底质为主。海草的生长状况存在显著的空间差异,与水温呈现显著的正相关,与水深和陆源污染物存在显著的负相关。结合历史资料,发现该海域海草床退化现象较严重,其主要威胁因素是人为干扰,主要包括渔业生产、养殖活动和陆源污染输入。建议合理规划周边海域的养殖规模和养殖密度、加强陆源污染物管控和开展海草床生态修复工程,以期为温带海草床的有效保护和科学管理提供参考。
  • 图  1  马山里海域海草床调查区域示意图

    Fig.  1  Map of investigation area of seagrass beds in Mashanli sea area

    图  2  红纤维虾形草水下状态(a)、外部形态特征(b)及其叶片组织切片(c)

    Fig.  2  Underwater state (a), external morphological characteristics (b) and leaf transection (c) of Phyllospadix iwatensis

    图  3  丛生鳗草水下状态(a)、外部形态特征(b)及其叶片组织切片(c)

    Fig.  3  Underwater state (a), external morphological characteristics (b) and leaf transection (c) of Zostera caespitosa

    图  4  马山里海草分布图

    Fig.  4  Distribution of seagrass in Mashanli

    图  5  海草形态学特征指标谱系图

    PW1-PW5为红纤维虾形草站位;ZC1-ZC5为丛生鳗草站位

    Fig.  5  Morphologic indexes intergroup pedigree of seagrasses

    PW1-PW5 indicate the station of P. iwatensis; ZC1-ZC5 indicate the station of Z. caespitosa

    图  6  马山里海域海草调查站位及生长状况评估结果

    PW1-PW5为红纤维虾形草站位;ZC1-ZC5为丛生鳗草站位

    Fig.  6  Seagrass survey stations and evaluation results of growth status in Mashanli sea area

    PW1-PW5 indicate the station of P. iwatensis; ZC1-ZC5 indicate the station of Z. caespitosa

    图  7  海草形态学指标与环境因子间的相关性(

    SH:株高;LSL:叶鞘长;AB:单株地上组织干重;UB:单株地下组织干重;WD:水深;WT:水温;DO:溶解氧含量;SWT:透明度;OM:沉积物有机质含量;左右两侧数据为变量的标准化典型相关系数,中间为典型变量间的相关系数;*代表p<0.05;**代表p<0.01

    Fig.  7  Spearman correlation analysis among morphological index of seagrass and environmental factors(* P < 0.05;** P < 0.01)

    SH: shoot height; LSL: leaf sheath length; AB: aboveground dry weight per plant; UB: underground dry weight per plant; WD: water depth; WT: water temperature; DO: dissolved oxygen content; SWT: transparency; OM: organic matter content; The data on the left and right sides are the normalized canonical correlation coefficient of the variables, and the data on the middle position are the correlation coefficient between the canonical variables; * indicates p<0.05;** indicates p<0.01

    图  8  U1V1典型结构示意图

    U1:生态学指标第一典型变量;V1:海区环境指标第一典型变量;SH:株高;LSL:叶鞘长;SD:茎枝密度;BI:单株干重;WD:水深;WT:水温;SWT:透明度;OM:沉积物有机质含量

    Fig.  8  Canonical correlation structure diagram of U1 and V1

    U1: the first canonical variable of morphological indexes; V1: the first canonical variable of Marine environmental factors; SH: shoot height; LSL: leaf sheath length; SD: shoot density; BI: dry weight per plant; WD: water depth; WT: water temperature; SWT: transparency; OM: organic matter content.

    图  9  变量典型载荷分析(A)和变量交叉载荷分析(B)

    SH:株高;LSL:叶鞘长;SD:茎枝密度;BI:单株干重;WD:水深;WT:水温;SWT:透明度;OM:有机质含量

    Fig.  9  Variable typical load analysis (A) and variable cross load analysis (B)

    SH: shoot height; LSL: leaf sheath length; SD: shoot density; BI: dry weight per plant; WD: water depth; WT: water temperature; SWT: transparency; OM: organic matter content

    图  10  典型冗余分析组内、组间解释度

    Fig.  10  Interpretation of typical redundancy analysis within and between groups

    图  11  环境类型赋分结果示意图

    Fig.  11  Schematic diagram of environment type assignment results

    表  1  马山里海域海草形态学指标统计

    Tab.  1  Statistics of morphological indexes of seagrasses in Mashanli sea area

    海草种类站位株高/cm叶鞘长/cm叶鞘宽/cm叶宽/cm根长/cm
    红纤维
    虾形草
    PW181.8 ± 3.27.5 ± 1.50.29 ± 0.020.23 ± 0.010.36 ± 0.06
    PW290.0 ± 4.114.7 ± 2.30.31 ± 0.030.27 ± 0.021.08 ± 0.09
    PW390.8 ± 2.316.0 ± 2.50.30 ± 0.020.28 ± 0.021.75 ± 0.06
    PW496.0 ± 3.313.3 ± 1.90.23 ± 0.040.23 ± 0.010.98 ± 0.05
    PW587.6 ± 3.812.5 ± 1.80.29 ± 0.030.25 ± 0.021.13 ± 0.07
    平均值89.2 ± 4.212.8 ± 2.70.28 ± 0.030.25 ± 0.021.06 ± 0.10
    丛生
    鳗草
    ZC168.3 ± 4.513.3 ± 0.560.37 ± 0.030.33 ± 0.026.10 ± 0.62
    ZC280.8 ± 5.215.2 ± 0.330.45 ± 0.020.39 ± 0.037.74 ± 0.58
    ZC387.1 ± 7.216.1 ± 0.840.44 ± 0.020.41 ± 0.038.10 ± 0.71
    ZC488.7 ± 6.416.1 ± 0.750.44 ± 0.030.39 ± 0.028.60 ± 0.67
    ZC567.3 ± 7.314.7 ± 0.640.43 ± 0.010.38 ± 0.036.15 ± 0.84
    平均值78.4 ± 8.315.1 ± 0.940.42 ± 0.020.38 ± 0.037.34 ± 0.94
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  马山里海域海草床主要环境因子

    Tab.  2  The main environmental factors of the seagrass beds in Mashanli sea area

    海草
    种类
    站位水深
    /m
    水温
    /℃
    盐度
    溶解氧
    /(mg·L-1)
    pH透明度
    /m
    底质
    类型
    沉积物有机质含量/%
    红纤维虾形草PW12.923.531.68.57.31.6礁石1.13
    PW22.523.531.38.77.51.6礁石1.19
    PW32.923.431.58.57.71.8礁石1.17
    PW42.323.531.38.47.31.9礁石1.11
    PW52.523.631.68.77.51.4礁石1.18
    平均值2.6±0.223.5±0.131.5±0.18.6±0.17.5±0.11.6±0.2礁石1.16±0.03
    丛生
    鳗草
    ZC12.923.331.910.37.31.9cS1.09
    ZC23.022.931.910.77.41.7cS1.05
    ZC32.923.031.910.07.41.8cS1.06
    ZC43.223.031.911.27.21.6cS1.15
    ZC53.123.131.910.77.31.6cS1.11
    平均值3.0±0.123.1±0.131.9±010.6±0.47.3±0.11.7±0.2cS1.12±0.04
    注:cS为黏土质砂。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  环境类型及赋分标准

    Tab.  3  Environment type and grading standard

    类型自然保护区耕地居民区工厂(养殖场)
    赋分0123
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  荣成近岸红纤维虾形草资源量的比较

    Tab.  4  Resources of Phyllospadix iwatensis in Rongcheng coastal

    地点分布面积/
    hm2
    平均茎枝密度/
    (shoots·m−2)
    生物量/
    (g·m−2)
    参考文献
    马山里54.5368.0±18.2297.0±41.5本文
    镆铘岛95.63 087.0±35.42 320.0±26.6文献[8]
    桑沟湾37.32 649.0±29.82 381.3±27.3文献[11]
    双岛湾7.73889.1±17.1605.9±18.1文献[10]
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-12-02
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