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西沙永兴岛附近海域沉积物的环境质量评价

徐阁 王德鸿 王诗文 石军 袁超 韩留玉

徐阁,王德鸿,王诗文,等. 西沙永兴岛附近海域沉积物的环境质量评价[J]. 海洋学报,2021,x(x):1–10 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2021180
引用本文: 徐阁,王德鸿,王诗文,等. 西沙永兴岛附近海域沉积物的环境质量评价[J]. 海洋学报,2021,x(x):1–10 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2021180
Xu Ge,Wang Dehong,Wang shiwen, et al. Evaluation on sediments quality around the Yongxing Island[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2021, x(x):1–10 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2021180
Citation: Xu Ge,Wang Dehong,Wang shiwen, et al. Evaluation on sediments quality around the Yongxing Island[J]. Haiyang Xuebao,2021, x(x):1–10 doi: 10.12284/hyxb2021180

西沙永兴岛附近海域沉积物的环境质量评价

doi: 10.12284/hyxb2021180
基金项目: 国家海洋局南海分局海洋科学技术局长基金资助项目(1542)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    徐阁(1986—),女,湖南省湘潭市人,工程师,从事海洋生态环境监测。E-mail:xuge187@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P736.2

Evaluation on sediments quality around the Yongxing Island

  • 摘要: 根据2009‒2017年9个航次对西沙永兴岛附近海域共6个站位的沉积物重金属监测结果,应用数理统计法估算了该区域7种重金属元素的背景值,分析了重金属的含量及年际变化,采用单因子标准指数法和潜在生态危害指数法对其重金属含量进行了评价。结果表明:研究区域沉积物重金属具有低背景值,均符合海洋沉积物质量第一类标准,沉积物质量为优。7种重金属含量的年际变化显著,变化规律不尽相同,受岛上开发活动影响较大。从2009年到2017年,重金属Zn、Cd、Cu、Cr、As和Hg含量变化的总体趋势是先增大后降低,Pb的含量则表现为增大。采用潜在生态风险评价显示,多年平均Eri的大小顺序为Cd、Hg、As、Cu、Pb、Cr、Zn,Cd和Hg是该研究海域潜在的生态风险因子。
  • 图  1  采样站位

    Fig.  1  Sampling locations

    图  2  沉积物Zn和Pb含量的年际变化

    Fig.  2  Inter-annual variation of contents of Zn and Pb

    图  3  沉积物Cr、Cu和As含量的年际变化

    Fig.  3  Inter-annual variation of contents of Cr、Cu and As

    图  4  沉积物Cd和Hg含量的年际变化

    Fig.  4  Inter-annual variation of contents of Cd and Hg

    图  5  重金属的综合潜在风险指数值RI年际变化

    Fig.  5  Inter-annual variation of means of potential ecological risk of heavy metals

    表  1  重金属元素测试值与标准值对比

    Tab.  1  Comparison of test value and standard value of heavy metal

    重金属铜Cu铅Pb锌Zn镉Cd铬Cr砷As总汞Hg
    测定值/
    (ug·g−1
    相对
    偏差
    测定值/
    (ug·g−1
    相对
    偏差
    测定值/
    (ug·g−1
    相对
    偏差
    测定值/
    (ug·g−1
    相对
    偏差
    测定值/
    (ug·g−1
    相对
    偏差
    测定值/
    (ug·g−1
    相对
    偏差
    测定值/
    (ug·g−1
    相对
    偏差
    GBW07314
    标准值
    31.0±4.025.0±4.087.0±2.00.20±0.0486.0±4.010.3±1.40.048±0.012
    2009年 30.8 0.6 24.4 2.4 88.4 1.6 0.19 5.0 87.7 2.0 10.20 1.0 0.051 6.2
    2010年 31.5 1.6 25.2 0.8 87.5 0.6 0.21 5.0 86.4 0.5 10.46 1.6 0.049 2.1
    2011年 31.5 1.6 25.1 0.4 86.4 0.7 0.17 15.0 88.1 2.4 10.34 0.4 0.043 10.4
    2012年 28.9 6.8 23.3 6.8 86.8 0.2 0.19 5.0 85.5 0.6 10.18 1.2 0.050 4.2
    2013年 31.4 1.3 24 4.0 88.6 1.8 0.19 5.0 87.7 2.0 10.57 2.6 0.043 10.4
    2014年 31.3 1.0 25.6 2.4 88.5 1.7 0.22 10.0 87.7 2.0 10.67 3.6 0.054 12.5
    2015年 29.9 3.5 24.8 0.8 87.4 0.5 0.17 15.0 83.0 3.5 10.15 1.5 0.042 12.5
    2016年 29.9 3.5 24.7 1.2 90.1 3.6 0.20 0 85.6 0.5 10.76 4.5 0.051 6.2
    2017年 29.8 3.9 24.9 0.4 86.7 0.3 0.19 5.0 86.5 0.6 11.08 7.6 0.054 12.5
    检出限 0.5 1 6.0 0.04 2.0 0.06 0.002
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  重金属的毒性系数[12]

    Tab.  2  The toxicity coefficient of heavy metals

    元素CuPbZnCdCrAsHg
    Tri5513021040
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  潜在生态风险指数法的污染评价等级划分

    Tab.  3  The ecological risk degree corresponding to and RI

    Eri范围单个重金属污染物
    生态风险程度分级
    RI范围综合潜在生态
    风险程度分级
    Eri<40RI<130
    40≤Eri<80130≤RI<260
    80≤Eri<160较高260≤RI<520较高
    160≤Eri<320RI≥520
    Eri≥320很高
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  永兴岛周边海域表层沉积物中重金属的环境背景值(单位:ug/g)

    Tab.  4  Background values of heavy metals in the surface sediments of Yongxing island and its surrounding sea area(unit: ug/g)

    元素ZnCdPbCuCrAsHg
    样品数6666666
    测值范围9.1~15.5未检出~0.045.9~9.20.7~1.14.8~7.30.78~1.510.006~0.009
    算术平均值11.00.038.10.96.51.020.008
    算术标准差2.40.011.20.11.00.290.001
    平均背景值11.00.038.10.96.51.020.008
    背景值范围8.5~13.40.02~0.046.9~9.30.7~1.05.4~7.50.73~1.320.006~0.009
    中国浅海沉积物背景值[22]650.0652015607.70.025
    南海北部陆架区[23]16.90.7923.09.025.5
    南海陆架区[21]54.40.1815.67.4339.39.710.020
    南海深海区沉积物背景值[24]149.00.2122.454.169.37.240.089
      注:−代表无此结果。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  2009-2017年西沙永兴岛附近海域表层沉积物重金属含量(×10−6

    Tab.  5  Contents of heavy metals in the surface sediments of Yongxing island and its surrounding sea area from 2009 to 2017(×10−6

    项目ZnCdPbCuCrAsHg
    2009年范围9.1~15.5未检出~0.045.9~9.20.7~1.14.8~7.30.78~1.510.006~0.009
    平均值11.00.038.10.96.51.020.008
    变异系数0.20.30.10.20.50.30.2
    2010年范围9.5~ 14.2未检出~ 0.1110.4~ 32.90.6~ 2.5未检出~ 9.31.64~ 3.330.010~ 0.020
    平均值11.70.0621.01.65.82.450.015
    变异系数0.20.60.50.40.50.30.3
    2011年范围未检出~14.4未检出~ 0.284.6~ 29.31.5~ 4.52.4~ 6.72.59~ 3.580.002~ 0.033
    平均值10.60.1615.72.54.33.060.008
    变异系数0.40.70.70.40.40.11.5
    2012年范围未检出~ 128.30.05~0.323.1~ 27.61.4~ 8.83.1~ 12.91.11~ 2.570.004~ 0.016
    平均值33.70.1212.14.16.51.870.007
    变异系数1.40.80.70.70.60.40.7
    2013年范围16.6~ 25.50.12~ 0.443.5~ 8.01.0~ 5.83.6~ 40.02.06~ 10.320.008~ 0.015
    平均值19.50.255.83.322.65.420.011
    变异系数0.20.60.30.50.70.60.3
    2014年范围未检出~ 6.10.12~ 0.205.4~ 13.9未检出~ 2.64.2~ 10.12.70~ 4.270.024~ 0.035
    平均值2.30.158.91.66.73.620.030
    变异系数0.80.20.40.50.30.20.1
    2015年范围22.9~ 29.3未检出~ 0.153.2~ 24.81.6~ 3.5未检出~ 4.10.20~ 0.780.002~ 0.009
    平均值26.10.0813.82.31.50.420.004
    变异系数0.10.70.70.31.10.50.6
    2016年范围10.1~ 35.60.04~ 0.0723.7~ 52.40.8~ 3.6未检出2.88~ 4.550.015~ 0.020
    平均值22.90.0642.81.50.53.600.018
    变异系数0.60.20.30.80.00.20.1
    2017年范围6.2~ 10.9未检出~ 0.0614.9~ 38.60.5~ 1.2未检出~ 2.21.27~ 2.900.004~ 0.011
    平均值8.50.0326.10.90.81.890.008
    变异系数0.20.50.30.30.90.30.3
    多年变化范围未检出~ 128.3未检出~0.443.1~52.4未检出~8.8未检出 ~40.00.20~10.320.002~0.035
    16.20.112.16.1
    多年平均值17.12.590.012
    海洋沉积物质量第一类标准值[25]150.00.5060.035.080.020.00.20
    中国浅海沉积物
    元素丰度[2122]
    650.0651520607.70.025
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  2009−2017年西沙永兴岛附近海域表层沉积物重金属潜在生态危害风险指标

    Tab.  6  The risk indicator of potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the surface sediments of Yongxing Island and its surrounding sea area from 2009 to 2017

    项目ZnCdPbCuCrAsHgRI
    2009年最小值0.8320.003.643.891.487.6530.0071.36
    最大值1.4140.005.686.112.2514.8045.00106.85
    平均值1.0033.335.014.911.9910.0238.3394.59
    2010年最小值0.8620.006.423.330.3116.0550.00130.10
    最大值1.29110.0020.3113.892.8632.65100.00266.41
    平均值1.0661.6712.978.981.7824.0474.17184.67
    2011年最小值0.2720.002.848.330.7425.3910.0086.12
    最大值1.31280.0018.0925.002.0635.10165.00353.65
    平均值0.96160.009.6713.981.3329.9741.25257.17
    2012年最小值0.2750.001.917.780.9510.8817.50107.24
    最大值11.66320.0017.0448.893.9725.2080.00441.13
    平均值3.07123.337.4822.592.0118.3333.33210.15
    2013年最小值1.51120.002.165.561.1120.2040.00264.70
    最大值2.32440.004.9432.2212.31101.1875.00549.72
    平均值1.77251.673.6018.336.9653.1253.33388.78
    2014年最小值0.14120.003.331.391.2926.47120.00315.24
    最大值0.55200.008.5814.443.1141.86175.00396.07
    平均值0.21151.675.509.122.0535.47148.33352.36
    2015年最小值2.0820.001.988.890.151.9610.0051.56
    最大值2.66150.0015.3119.441.267.6545.00230.70
    平均值2.3778.338.5212.870.454.1020.00126.64
    2016年最小值0.9242.6814.614.360.1528.2475.00201.20
    最大值3.2472.4932.3520.140.1544.6197.50232.85
    平均值2.0855.4226.398.110.1535.3287.92215.40
    2017年最小值0.5720.009.172.630.1512.4520.0081.43
    最大值0.9955.9123.846.410.6928.4355.00130.12
    平均值0.7833.9216.124.900.2418.5538.33112.84
    多年变化最小值0.1420.001.911.390.151.9610.0051.56
    最大值2.08120.0014.618.891.4828.24120.00315.24
    平均值1.48105.4810.5911.531.8925.4459.44215.84
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-05-04
  • 修回日期:  2021-07-23
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-08-11

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